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Applied physiology to optimise
performance

Energy Sources and Systems

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy from foods has to be converted in ATP before the potential energy
can be used.
Energy is released from breaking the bonds that hold ATP together,.
The enzyme that does this is called ATPase.







Sources of Energy…

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Energy Systems

There are 3 types of energy system that replenish, resynthesize
&produce ATP.
1) The ATPPC System
2) The lactic Acid System
3) The aerobic System
Intensity and duration of the exercise plays a part in which one is
chosen.

ATPPC System

High intensity exercise, lasting less than 10…

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Aerobic System

Low intensity activities, duration longer than 23mins
Aerobic system
ATP is regenerated from glucose and fats in 3 stages.
1) Glycolysis ­ glycogen broken down into glucose, broken down into
pyruvic acid.
2) Krebs cycle ­ pyruvic acid diffuses into the matrix of mitochondria
causing reactions. This creates…

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The energy continuum

Refers to the continual movement from one energy system to another
Dependant on intensity and duration of exercise
The ATPPC/Lactic acid threshold is the point that the ATPPC system
is exhausted, so the lactic acid system takes over.
The Lactic Acid/Aerobic threshold is the point where the…

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Glycogen depletion ­ When glycogen stores are depleted performers `hit the
wall'. The body tries to breakdown fat, but cannot use this as an energy source
alone.

Lactic Acid Buildup ­ The buildup of lactic acid releases H ions. H ions
increase the acidity of the blood plasma. This denatures…

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During recovery the body takes in increased amount of O2.
The O2 is transported to working muscles to maintain elevated rates of
aerobic respiration.
Surplus energy is used to help return the body to its preexercise state.
This is known as Excess PostExercise Oxygen.

The oxygen debt
When we start…

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The replacement of glycogen stores depends on exercise type &
when/how much carb is consumed afterwards
It can take several days to complete restoration after a marathon ­ but
after long duration & low intensity, it can be restored in less than an hour.
Eating a high carb meal will…

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Gender ­ A males VO max is higher than a females because the average
female is smaller than the average male. And, females have:
A smaller left ventricle = lover SV
A lower maximum cardiac output (Q)
A lower blood volume, resulting in lower haemoglobin levels
Lower tidal and ventilatory…

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OBLA occurs when the concentration of lactic acid is around 4mmol1.

OBLA gives an indication of endurance capacity. Some performers can work
at higher levels of intensity than others before OBLA and can delay when the
threshold occurs.
OBLA is expressed as a percentage of VO max. An average person…

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Control of muscular contraction

Proprioceptors ­ sense organs in the muscle, tendons and joints that tell the
body the extent of the movement that has taken place

Muscle Spindle Apparatus ­ made up of proprioceptors lying between the
skeletal muscle fibres. Provide info on the nature and rate of change…

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