AQA Unit 3 Pe notes.

This took me absolutely AGES. but, as I'm teaching myself the course it's pretty thorough and I don't think i've missed anything out. 

Hope it helps someone out there.. 

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Applied physiology to optimise
performance
Energy Sources and Systems
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy from foods has to be converted in ATP before the potential energy
can be used.
Energy is released from breaking the bonds that hold ATP together,.
The enzyme that does this is called ATPase.
Sources of Energy to replenish ATP
Phosphocreatine is used to resynthesize ATP in the first 10 seconds of
intense exercise. It is easy to break down, stored in the muscles cells
BUT stores are limited.
This means that food has to be used for ATP resynthesis as well.
Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in the muscles & liver. They are
converted into glucose during exercise. During high intensity exercise
anaerobic exercise ­ glycogen can be broken down without O2. But is
more effective during aerobic exercise.
Fats are stored as Triglycerides and converted to Free Fatty Acids
when needed. At rest 2/3 of energy comes from the breakdown of FFA.
Protein provides 510% of energy during exercise in the form of amino
acids. Tends to be used when glycogen stores are low.
Carbs and Fats are the 2 main energy providers.
Fats need more oxygen to breakdown so during high intensity anaerobic
exercise, Carbs are used.
Fats are favoured at rest & longendurance activities ­where O2 is
available.
Stores of glycogen are much smaller than stores of fat, so it is important
to not deplete glycogen stores. Some glycogen needs saving in case
exercise intensity increases. E.g. Last stage of a marathon

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Energy Systems
There are 3 types of energy system that replenish, resynthesize
&produce ATP.
1) The ATPPC System
2) The lactic Acid System
3) The aerobic System
Intensity and duration of the exercise plays a part in which one is
chosen.…read more

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Aerobic System
Low intensity activities, duration longer than 23mins
Aerobic system
ATP is regenerated from glucose and fats in 3 stages.
1) Glycolysis ­ glycogen broken down into glucose, broken down into
pyruvic acid.
2) Krebs cycle ­ pyruvic acid diffuses into the matrix of mitochondria
causing reactions. This creates 2 moles of ATP & CO2 & H. CO2 is
breathed out, H is taken to the ETC.
3) Electron Transport Chain ­ Hydrogen carriers take H from the
Krebs cycle to the ETC.…read more

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Glycogen depletion ­ When glycogen stores are depleted performers `hit the
wall'. The body tries to breakdown fat, but cannot use this as an energy source
alone.
Lactic Acid Buildup ­ The buildup of lactic acid releases H ions. H ions
increase the acidity of the blood plasma. This denatures enzymes ­ stopping
glucose breakdown, irritating nerve endings causing pain.
Reduced rate of ATP synthesis ­When ATP and PC stores are depleted
there is not enough ATP to keep up muscular contractions.…read more

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During recovery the body takes in increased amount of O2.
The O2 is transported to working muscles to maintain elevated rates of
aerobic respiration.
Surplus energy is used to help return the body to its preexercise state.
This is known as Excess PostExercise Oxygen.
The oxygen debt
When we start to exercise, insufficient oxygen is distributed to the tissues
for all the energy production to be met aerobically ­ so the 2 anaerobic
systems have to be used.…read more

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Gender ­ A males VO max is higher than a females because the average
female is smaller than the average male.…read more

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Control of muscular contraction
Proprioceptors ­ sense organs in the muscle, tendons and joints that tell the
body the extent of the movement that has taken place
Muscle Spindle Apparatus ­ made up of proprioceptors lying between the
skeletal muscle fibres. Provide info on the nature and rate of change in muscle
length. When the muscle stretches, the spindle stretches, sending an impulse to
the spinal cord.…read more

Comments

Ryan Strother

This is so good!

abaldwin86

This is really good, it will help me a lot learn the facts so thank you very much :)

Hannah


Excellent revision source, clearly set out, very helpful!

stuartmat


Well done!

kishasyed

These are amazing!! Thank you!

b.corbett

Very well set out, detailed and good diagrams

Vansz

You're amazinggggggggggg!xxxxxxxx

SAM PRINGLEEEEE

absolutely dreadful resourses

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