Pakistan Flood Case Study – July 2010

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  • Created by: Lucy
  • Created on: 26-04-13 14:17

Location and Background

Location
Pakistan is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north.

·         Population 187,342,721

·         Birth Rate 24.87 births/1000 population

·         Death Rate 6.92 deaths/1000 population

·         GDP per Capita $2,500

Background
The Pakistan floods began on the 29th July 2010. The main reason this flood occurred was because of unusually heavy monsoon rains. Almost 12 million people were affected in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces, 1600 of which died. As well as the 2 million people affected in the Sindh province.

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Causes

-Unusually heavy monsoon rains during the normal season that runs from July to September.
-In August 2010, more than half of the normal monsoon rain fell in only one week. Typically it is spread over three months – 4 months of rainfall in 2 days.
-In some areas of Northern Pakistan received 3 times their annual rainfall in 36 hours. Particularly heavy rainfall was experienced in the northern regions of Pakistan.
-Deforestation :Pakistan is known to have one of the highest rates of deforestation in the whole world (more than 70% illegally cut down in 2007).
-As there are less tress this would increase how quickly the water reaches the river/ground, flash floods. No interception, less water stored in underground stores.

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Social Impacts

·         7 million people homeless and broke ·         Many people living in temporary shelter ·         Agricultural resources have been destroyed ·         Food shortages are a main concern and cause food riots between Pakistan public ·         A threat of social unrest: families and ethnic groups compete with each other in an event of a break down in the government ·         Increase threat of diseases: cholera, malaria, malnutrition (23% of the year’s harvest was washed away)

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Economic Effects

·    Widespread damage to people’s homes. Villages have been wiped out
·         Extensive damage to roads, buildings and irrigation works
·         United Nations estimate of rebuilding the country’s damage will be billions of dollars
·         Pakistan’s main industry is agriculture and has been heavily affected by the floods:
-500,000 tonnes of wheat lost
-2 million out of a targeted 14 million bales of cotton have been lost
·         The textile industry accounts for 60% of Pakistan’s exports and as a result export sales have decreased resulting in further poverty occurring in the country.
·         With the building damage cost being so high and revenue lost due to the floods, Pakistan’s economy is in ruins

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Political Effects

·      Pakistani Government facing the threat of being destabilized due to unhappiness brought on by the following problems:

-Economic problems

-Living conditions

-Rising transport and food costs

·         The Taliban are a radical group associated with terrorism and could gain support by providing aid and winning over public support as a result becoming the head party within Pakistan

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Management

  

·         The Government’s primary focus is rescue and relief

·         After each disaster episode the government incurs considerable expenditure directed at rescue, relief and rehabilitation

·         United Nations (UN) department for international strategy for disaster reduction is now focusing on flooding management for the future

Difficult to manage: Pakistan’s rivers carry lots of sand and sediment eroding off the Himalayas. Buildings levees causes the river channel to silt up. This has the effect of making Pakistan’s rivers prone to even bigger floods when the levees eventually break.

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Conclusion

-The floods have been an important lesson to many organisations worldwide and in Pakistan itself, showing the need for proper flood management to reduce the chances of a flood like this happening again.
-This flood shows there is a need for re-forestation to allow infiltration to occur and reduce surface runoff.
-It also highlights the importance of managing the hydrological resources and the fact Pakistan needs a drainage infrastructure to prevent flooding from happening again, especially in the monsoon season.
-This flood makes Pakistan more susceptible to future floods, Pakistan is already feeling the effects of climate change, and one of the effects climate change brings is unexpected flash heavy rain. It’s not all climate change. Overdevelopment and timber business, these have taken away watershed areas and made it much easier for water to flow down the mountain and hillsides and create a flash flood.

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FACTS

      ·         Floods have affected about one-fifth of the country (nearly 62,000 square miles)

·         One study puts the total cost of the flood damage at $7.1 billion

·         More than 400 health care facilities have been destroyed

·         More than 5,000 miles of roads and railways have been washed away

·         7,000 schools have been destroyed

·         Afghan refugee camps ruined

·         1,270 official death toll

·         337,282 people rescued

·         14,000 cattle died

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FACTS

      ·         Floods have affected about one-fifth of the country (nearly 62,000 square miles)

·         One study puts the total cost of the flood damage at $7.1 billion

·         More than 400 health care facilities have been destroyed

·         More than 5,000 miles of roads and railways have been washed away

·         7,000 schools have been destroyed

·         Afghan refugee camps ruined

·         1,270 official death toll

·         337,282 people rescued

·         14,000 cattle died

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