AQA AS Geography Rivers: Pakistan Floods

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 20:15
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Case Study: The Pakistan Floods
Background Information
Pakistan is made up of three regions: the mountainous North,
the flat highlands in the South-West and the plains of the
Punjab and Sindh regions.
The great Indus River runs through the country from the
Himalayas down to the Arabian Sea, 3,200 km long.
Pakistan has three main seasons:
A cool, dry Winter from October through February
A hot, dry Spring from March through to May
A Summer rainy/monsoon season from June to September
There are around 180 million people living in Pakistan.
Many people make their living from farming.
The soil is very fertile due to regular flooding.
Communities are prepared for regular flooding and have local traditions and organisations
to deal with floods.
The Flood: During July and August 2010, Pakistan experience heavier than usual
Monsoon rains which are considered to be the main cause of the flooding.
Heavy rains caused the Indus River and its tributaries to burst their banks.
As the monsoon rains continued, the Indus River saw some of the highest
water levels in 110 years and flooding spread downstream south through the
country towards the Sindh region.

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Physical Causes
Heavy rainfall Heavy rainfall fell in a short amount of time
257 mm in 24 hours
Saturated soil The rain saturated the soil
increased surface runoff
increased river discharge
Glacial water Melting glacial water contributed to the floods
Temperature Above average temperature in the Indian Ocean might
have been responsible for the heavy rainfall
Human Causes
Deforestation Lead to increased surface runoff and river discharge
Less interception
Urbanisation Urbanisation in the river valley led to increased surface
runoff and river discharge
Too…read more

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Social Economical Environmental
Claimed the lives of over 350 businesses were shut A third of Pakistan was
1,700 people down covered by floodwaters
Affected over 20 million Crops were destroyed so Ground was saturated over
people food prices increase and huge areas
many lost businesses
because of this
Destroyed entire villages Trade from railway stopped Crops couldn't grow in such
leaving people homeless saturated soil
Waterborne diseases like Water supplies were
cholera and typhoid were a contaminated
real threat
Livestock were killed River bank…read more


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