Crowded Coasts: Spain
- Reliable - always warm, has sandy beaches, abundance of tourist services.
- Quick, cheap flights and hotels.
- In 2005, 47,000 Brits moved to Spain. (free movement within the EU).
'Spain's Costa Geriatrica'
- 65% of the entire Mediterranean Coast is urbanised.
- By 2025 it is estimated that 135 million people will be living on the northern coast of the Mediterranean.
- Most migrants are either families moving from large cities inland, or international migrants retiring eg from the UK.
- In 2005, 22% of the people living along the Spanish coast were over 65.
Problems with over-migration:
- Water shortages eg in the South of Spain, as tourists are very water intensive.
- Loss of culture as businesses familiar to the tourists (eg English pubs in a Spanish town) open.
- House prices rise as tourists buy houses.
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Regeneration of Bournemouth and Boscombe
- Boscombe Artificial Surf Reef:
- Cost £3 million - double original cost.
- There were many problems during construction - almost was cancelled.
- Opened in 2009, and is the first artificial surf reef in the northern hemisphere.
- Has helped to boost tourism and businesses - many restaurants and bars now opened.
- Has increased tourist numbers by 1/3 - but has also increased litter and pollution.
- The reef has attracted '100 species' including algae, molluscs and fish.
- Doesn't affect coastal erosion.
- Has given the area an 'identity'.
- The Bournemouth International Centre (BIC):
- Trying to encourage 'business tourism'.
- The largest conference, exhibition and event venue on the south coast.
- Waterfront IMAX:
- Was bought by the council for £7 million in 2010, but they couldn't resell it.
- It was demolished in 2012, costing £2 million.
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Crowded Coasts: Bournemouth
Location: Bournemouth is in Dorset, east of the Jurassic coast.
- Population of 163,000 (17,500 at the University)
- 1.5 million visitors a year, generating £440 million per year, and 7,000 tourism jobs.
- Developed as a resort in the Victorian era after a railway from London to Bournemouth was built in 1859.
- Tourist numbers fell in the 1960s.
- Over £100 million was invested to rebrand Bournemouth and the surrounding towns.
- Since rebranding began, tourist numbers have increased by 32%.
- Schemes include:
- Europe's 1st artificial surf reef in Boscombe.
- The Bournemouth International Centre (BIC).
- The Waterfront IMAX in Bournemouth.
- New residential community of 169 flats in Boscombe.
- The Boscombe Spa Village Regeneration Scheme has increased house prices, tourism numbers and has created over 100 permanent jobs.
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- Definition: Violent shaking of the ground caused by the release of built-up stress within rocks along geologic faults or by the movement of magma. Often followed by aftershocks.
- They can occur along any type of plate boundary (see flashcards for notes on this). The point inside the crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point on the Earth's surface above the focus is called the epicentre.
- They are measured on the Richter scale, and the energy is released in seismic waves.
- The earthquakes are primary hazards, but they can cause secondary hazards too such as tsunamis or landslides.
- Case Study: Kashmir, Pakistan, 2005:
- 7.6 magnitude earthquake.
- Over 75,000 dead in Pakistan, 1,300 in India. Over 3.5 million people were left homeless.
- 472,000 homes destroyed in Pakistan and India total.
- Hospitals were hugely overcrowded: 138,000 people required medical care, but out of 564 local hospitals, only 199 were functioning after the earthquake.
- They recieved over $5.4 billion in aid.
- It was a school day in Pakistan, which increased the death toll.
- Kashmir is near the boundary between the Eurasian and Indian plates, so was damaged the most.
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- Definition: An extended period of time of water deficiency. Tends to occur during the summer, but can last for years.
- Causes: Brought on by high air pressure, caused by either an El Nino cycle; variations in the movement of the ITCZ (carries a band of rain); or changes in the track of mid-land depressions (change the level of annual rainfall in an area).
- Distribution: Can occur anywhere, but places like Australia, South America, and the Sahel region are most vulnerable.
- Case Study: Australia 2000-2006: Australia's worst drought for over a century.
- The drought decreased annual wheat yield from 25 million tonnes to 9.8 million tonnes, and reduced Australia's GDP by 0.75% in 2007. Cost $4.5 billion in drought assistance.
- Also lead to many bushfires, as vegetation was drier, so fire could spread easier.
- Companies that depended on hydroelectric energy had to find alternative sources of power, which increased prices.
- Why are some areas more vulnerable? CAPACITY TO COPE: HICs tend to cope better than LICs. Eg in Spain has many desalination plants (very costly), which LICs cannot afford.
- LOCATION: Because it can be caused by El Nino, countries like Australia and Indonesia, and equatorial countries (eg in Africa) are more at threat than eg the UK, because they have higher average annual temperatures.
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- Definition: A mountain/hill, typically conical, having a crater/vent which allows hot lava, ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.
- Causes and formation: (look at flashcards). Three main causing factors are:
- Buoyancy of the magma; the pressure from the gases in the magma; the injection of new magma into an already full magma chamber.
- Formed by magma exploding to the surface of the Earth, cooling (forming a new crust layer), and building up into a volcano after many eruptions and coolings.
- Most common near plate boundaries. The 'Ring of Fire' is the area with most activity.
- Have primary (lava flows, gas release) and secondary (tsunamis, pyroclastic flows) effects.
- Case Study: Sakurajima volcano, Japan, 1914:
- 35 deaths; the island had been evacuated (the deaths were from a secondary earthquake).
- 1m of ash debris fell up to 20km east of the volcano, and a small tsunami was created, and damaged many boats. The lava flows also filled in a 400m wide channel, connecting Sakurajima to the mainland.
- Why are some areas more vulnerable?: Occur mainly through the movement of tectonic plates, so areas near a plate boundary are more at risk (the land is fertile so people like to live there); HICs will have better infrastructure and prediction technology than LICs.
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Slides (avalanches, landslides)
- Definition: The mass movement of debris down a slope.
- Causes: AVALANCHES: occurs when layers of snow near the surface cannot be supported by the layers below. Weather and temperature are important factors.
- LANDSLIDES: A result of seismic activity; movement in the Earth's crust may cause tension cracks, causing movement of the land, so soil and material to flow downhill.
- Distribution: AVALANCHES: Seen around large mountain ranges (eg Himalayas, Alps), where there is a high slope gradient and an abundance of snow and ice. LANDSLIDES:
- Seen near country borders (countries tend to be separated by high land) and coastlines.
- Examples: AVALANCHES: The Alps - 1916 - Took place over 4 hours, killing 10,000.
- LANDSLIDES: Haiyuan, China - 1920 - triggered by 8.5 magnitude earthquake, killed over 100,000 people - covered an area of roughly 50,000km2.
- Impacts: Damage to wildlife and environment as material flows over vegetation.
- Water pollution, which can cause water borne diseases ( eg cholera).
- Destroys buildings, infrastructure (eg sewage systems, roads), can injure or even kill.
- Why are some areas more vulnerable? Areas nearer to plate boundaries (more earthquakes =more slides); wealth (prediction systems can limit impacts, but are expensive).
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- Definition: The inundation of land through the overflowing of a body of water. Floods are a frequent hazard in 33% of the world, affecting over 80% of the global population.
- Causes: EXCESSIVE RAINFALL: Can result from monsoons, or a series of mid-latitude depressions. INTENSE RAINFALL: Produces flash floods. Coastal flooding can occur when to a large storm or tsunami causes storm surges.
- Case Study: Pakistan - 2010 - Record levels of rain due to the annual monsoon rains + variations in the jet stream. They were the worst floods since the 1920s. (At its worst, up to 1/5 of the country along the Indus River was under water)
- Affected 17 million people across Pakistan, and 1,600 people died. Water was contaminated by sewage, leading to water borne diseases.
- Other damage included loss of agricultural land; bridges became impassable (many people therefore didn't recieve aid); buildings and property were damaged.
- Why are some areas more vulnerable? Water flows from higher to lower ground, low areas (eg at the bottom of a valley) are more at risk. Population density (eg in Sri Lanka, people are forced to live in low lying deltas, so are more at risk). Wealth, as LICs will have poor warning systems so have a lower capacity to cope. Also they don't have the money for aid. HICs, have more impermeable surfaces (eg concrete) so more runoff. Deforestation increases runoff into rivers.
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- Definition: A disturbance of the atmosphere with wind, rain, thunder or lightning.
- Causes: Generated when warm, less dense air rises into colder levels in an unbalanced updraft. This can reach up to 100 mph. Hurricanes form over moisture-rich oceans.
- Distribution: HURRICANES: Form off the West coast of Africa, between 5N and 5S of the equator (not on the equator- weak Coriolis effect there). They occur over warm oceans (>26C), of at least 70m. They are most common between June-November in the northern hemisphere, and October-May in the southern hemisphere.
- Case Study: USA - Hurricane Katrina - 2005 - Category 4. Produced storm surges > 6m. New Orleans was worst affected because it's below sea level, and its levee defences were unable to cope, flooding the city. 1,200 people drowned, and 1 million were homeless. Many of the poorest people remained (there was an evacuation order), and went to the Superdome
- It was unhygenic, and a shortage of food and water. There was also a lot of looting, and oil facilities were damaged, so petrol prices rose in the USA and the UK.
- Why are some areas more vulnerable? HICS: Although they have more resources and better technology, there is usually more economic loss through damage to buildings and infrastructure. LICS: Have a lower capacity to cope, have less technology to predict, so cannot prepare. They rely on foreign aid.
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Kiribati- Impacts of Global Warming
- Kiribati consists of very low-lying sand and mangrove islands, only 1m above sea level.
- Covers 4,023,000km2 of ocean, but land cover is only 720km2, with a population of 92,500.
- Largest population on Tarawa (500m wide). Sand is now imported from Australia to maintain the island.
- Many families have moved inland, but some have left altogether to New Zealand (around 17,000 in the last two years), making them the world's first environmental refugees.
- Temperatures in the southwest Pacific have increased by 1C in the last century, compared to the global average of 0.6C.
- There is already an increased frequency of tropical storms and tsunamis (the region is now considered a hazard hotspot), which can increase erosion or even destroy an island altogther.
- Tebua, one of the islands, has already disappeared. This is believed to be due to rising sea levels (in Micronesia, a neighbouring island nation, the sea has risen by 21.4mm every year since 2001).
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The Philippines - a hazard hotspot
- The Philippines are 7,000 islands, with a population of 96 million. It is affected by:
- EARTHQUAKES: It lies on a destructive plate boundary (The Eurasian and the Philippine plates), which subduct. EG: An earthquake in 2006 killed 15 people, damaged over 800 buildings, triggered a 3m high tsunami and landslides which created a flood (washed away houses). VOLCANOES: There are 18 active volcanoes (out of 37 total). It lies on the Ring of Fire. EG: In 1991, Mt Pinatubo erupted (largest one for 50 years). Created pyroclastic flows and ash clouds up 20km into the atmosphere, killing 350 people and burying 80,000ha of farmland under ash. Losses were $710million. LANDSLIDES: Earthquakes, monsoon rains and deforestation (forest cover has decreased from 70% to 20% in the 20th century), can trigger landslides. EG: In 2006, a mudslide covered 3km2, burying the town of Guinsagon, killing 1,150 people. 2000mm of rain had fallen in 10 days that month, and a 2.6 magnitude earthquake had just struck. TYPHOONS: It lies on a typhoon belt, and is struck by 5-6/year. The Philippines is the most exposed country in the world to tropical storms. EG: In November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan (category 5) hit the Philippines. It was the strongest ever typhoon at landfall (wind speeds were 195mph). 5,500 people died, 1.9 million were homeless, and 13% of the population were affected. It caused a 13ft high storm surge, and widespread flooding and landslides. Tacloban was the worst hit (90% of the city was destroyed), and $700 million has been donated in aid.
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California - a hazard hotspot
- California has the world's 6th largest economy (GDP of £35,000), yet it is very hazardous.
- EARTHQUAKES: It has a conservative plate boundary (the San Andreas Fault) between the North American and Pacific Plates. San Francisco lies on this. EG: In 1994, San Fernando Valley (densely populated) was hit by a 6.7 earthquake, with 1000s of aftershocks between 4.0-5.0. 57 people died, >1,500 were injured, and 9,000 homes were without electricity, 20,000 without gas, and 48,500 without water. Several motorways were damaged, causing traffic congestion up to 30km away.
- OTHER HAZARDS: California is also at risk from droughts and forest fires, which are caused by La Nina (opposite of El Nino), as warm, dry air blows over California, reducing rainfall. California also experiences floods and landslides (eg along the San Gabriel River; in Malibu; in Long Beach (coastal flooding risk)), which is due to El Nino, as moist air is blown towards South America, bringing torrential rains. Deforestation is increasing the likelihood of flooding, as there is less interception and more runoff into rivers.
- Although natural hazards kill fewer people in California than in the Philippines, there is a greater economic loss as there is more infrastructure, and more buildings that are vulnerable than in the Philippines.
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Hazards affecting London
- Flooding: Around 700,000 properties are at risk in London. A major flooding of the Thames Barrier could cost £12 billion. Due to sea level rise, the risk of flooding to London is increasing. EXAMPLE: In July 2007, major floods hit the UK, and parts of South London were under 2 feet of water.
- Drought: Normally, the amount of rain produced and the amount of water used in London are equal. However, in a dry year more water is used than is produced, so the water table drops, and drought occurs. Climate change means our summers are becoming warmer and drier, increasing the risk of drought. EXAMPLE: In the summer of 2012, London and South East England experienced droughts due to 2 years of below-average rainfall.
- Heat Waves: As London becomes more densely populated, the temperature rises. The centre of London is 10C hotter than the surrounding greenbelt. Climate change is increasing global average temperatures, increasing the frequency of heat waves. EXAMPLE: In 2003, temperatures were 10C higher than normal in the UK. 600 people died, mostly due to dehydration.
- Tornadoes: It is estimated that up to 50 tornadoes hit the UK each year, the highest in Europe. Most are harmless, as the seas around the UK are too mild. Climate change is causing sea temperatures to increase, increasing evaporation and therefore the number of tornadoes each year. EXAMPLE: In 2006, a tornado occured in North West London, injuring 6 people, and damaged houses and a local school.
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Impacts of global warming
- Food: +0.5-6.1C- Falling crop yields in many developing regions. +4.1-5.8C- Entire regions experience major declines in crop yields (up to 1/3 in Africa).
- Water: +1C- all galciers melt in one generation. +2.1-3.8C- Greater than 30% decrease in runoff in Mediterranean and Southern Africa (due to less rainfall).
- Ecosystem: +0.4-2C- Coral reef ecosystems extensively and irreversibly damaged. +2.3-3.9C- Many species face extinction (20-50% in one study).
- Extreme weather: +1-5.4C- Rising intensity of storms, forest fires, droughts, flooding and heat waves. +2.2-3.9C- Small increases in hurricane intensity lead to a doubling of damage costs in the USA.
- Risk of major irreversible change: +1.5-3C- Irreversible melting of the Greenland ice sheet; would cause a 7m eustatic rise in sea level. +1.5-6C- Risk of weakening natural carbon absorption and of the Atlantic THC (Thermo Haline Circulation- global ocean currents driven by levels of salt and heat in the ocean. If salt concentrations increase, THC wouldn't drive warm water north.)
- Melting glaciers, ice-sheets and the Global Ocean Currents: +1-2C- THC begins to weaken. +3-4C- Coral reefs suffer catastrophic failure and the terrestrial biosphere becomes a net CO2 source. +4-5C- THC pushed to point of collapse.
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- Climate changes: Warming is double the global average in the Arctic. Since the 1950s the temperature has increased by 3-4C. Snow cover has decreased by 10% and the permafrost has increased by 2C since 1970. There are concerns over the increasing rate of melting in the Greenland Ice Sheet, as this would cause a positive feeback cycle. Since 1900 precipitation (mostly in the form of rain) has increased by 8%.
- Impacts on the Inuit: There are 4 million people living in the Arctic region. Climate change has shortened hunting seasons as sea ice is melting faster than ever, so there is less food for them to eat/sell. Due to rising sea levels, 24 Inuit villages are now threatened by coastal flooding, and many have moved inland. This means that their culture and traditions may soon be lost.
- Impacts on the ecosystem: The tundra ecosystem may be lost, and Arctic flora and fauna cannot migrate north. An 80% increase in annual forest fires is expected by 2100. The rising temperatures and melting sea ice is reducing numbers of seals, polar bears (who rely on sea ice to breed (seals) or hunt (bears)) and shrimp. Polar bears may even go extinct, altering the food chain.
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- Population: 13.3 million. Capital: Dakar. Population is 2 million people (4 million unofficially).
- What changes to weather patterns have occured? DROUGHT: Temperatures have increased by 1.6C in 30 years (x2 global average). There has been 17 years without enough water. Many people are abandoning their farms. DESERTIFICATION: The desert is growing by 50,000ha /year. DEFORESTATION: Deforestation exposes top soils to the wind, removing the nutrients and making it infertile land and releases carbon cells in trees.
- Consequences: ENVIRONMENTAL: Crops are failing as rice (most grown crop) is very water intensive. SOCIAL: Increased food prices have caused riots. People can't afford the rice, so only eat once a day (lower food security). In rural areas, men have left, so there are only the very young, the very old and women still there. In urban areas (eg Dakar, where >30% of the population live on <1% of the land) there is not enough infrastructure (eg roads, schools, sanitation). They are prone to flooding, increasing malaria and rates of water borne diseases. ECONOMIC: The price of rice and grain has doubled in recent years. Now Senegal has to import 80% of the rice it needs.
- What can be done? They are selectively breeding rice that is resistant to salty water and less water intensive. They are also planting trees in farms to stop top soil erosion, and are diversifying farms to keep the soil fertile.
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Impacts of global warming- Africa
- Africa's temperatures have risen between 0.5-3.5C, and droughts are becoming more common as areas become more arid and rainfall decreases.
- Biodiversity impacts: In East Africa, mountain biodiversity has changed-there are fewer plant and animal species as exsisting ones struggle to survive. In Southern Africa, the Savannah ecosystem is resilient, but the Fynbos (shrubland) biome is vulnerable. In Western Africa, there have been changes in coastal environments - the destruction of mangroves. This will have negative impacts on fisheries and tourism (also applies to food production). In Rwanda, the Rwenzori mountain glaciers are melting (also applies to water supply).
- Human health: In Sub-Saharan Africa, diseases such as Dengue Fever, Malaria and Cholera will become more widespread. Malaria is due to mosquitos, which there will be more of due to increased humidity, and the number of people affected could increase to 7.2 million in South Africa, reducing number of people who are able to work. All over Africa 182 million people could die of diseases directly resulting from climate change by 2100.
- Food production: In Western Africa, more food will be grown, due to increased rainfall and temperatures. But, demand from rising a population will mean that prices could still rise. All over Africa heatwaves will cause deaths; crop yields will fall between 10-30% by the 2050s.
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- Factoids: The Maldives are 26 atolls (1,200 islands) in the Indian Ocean. 80% of the land is <1m above sea level. Their main export is fish, but tourism accounts for 28% of their GDP.
- What threats are there to people and the environment with rising sea levels?
- Tourism levels would drop if sea levels rose.
- Coral reefs have been dying, which decreases the natural barrier around islands. Bleached coral (caused by climate change) is dead and provides no protection.
- From 11th-12th April 1987, the capital island Male was flooded (1/3 of the population of the Maldives live there). Many houses were destroyed, and half the island was under 1m of water.
- What have the Maldives government/people done to deal with rising sea levels?
- Due to the increasing frequency of floods, they are making a new island off Male. It will be the largest and highest island in the Maldives (3m above sea level), and will have 25,000 'housing units' with 20% of the population (60,000) living there.
- After the 1987 Male floods, they built a sea wall as a defence as the reefs were gone. It cost more than $40 million, but was financed by the Japanese government.
- Other smaller islands have been strengthening ground by laying rubbish down and then covering it with sand.
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FIELDWORK- Investigating coastal flood risk and co
- AIMS: - To assess the risk and impact of coastal flooding in Swanage. - To evaluate different coastal defences at Swanage and Studland. - To explain why coastal management strategies vary between Swanage and Studland.
- RESEARCH: - Old newspaper articles eg. Bournemouth Echo (www.bournemouthecho.co.uk) - Local news websites/ blogs. - Google Earth.
- BACKGROUND: What are Shoreline Management Plans?
- Introduced in 1995 to make coastal management more intergrated. They offer authorities the opportunity to assess the long term implications of coastal protection. Many stakeholders (RSPB, planning authorities, local councils etc) are involved. They are based on sediment cells all over England and Wales.
- FIELDWORK TECHNIQUES: 1. Beach profiling: Measuring the gradient of the beach at 5m intervals starting at the shoreline and walking up a transect. It measures the length and height of the beach (high + wide = good protection against flooding). 2. Wave observations: Counting the number of wave crests per minute (repeating 5 times at Swanage and Studland). Constructive waves= < 13 waves per minute. Destructive waves= ~ 15 waves per minute. 3. Flood risk mapping: Use the equation Flood risk= likelihood x severity. Do this by rating height above sea level per polygon (0-5m=3; 6-10m=2; >11m=1) and land use in each polygon (tourist/retail=3; residential=2; open space=1).
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FIELDWORK - ... and coastal management schemes
- 4. Sketching or photographing management strategies in place at Swanage and Studland. 5. Bi- polar analysis: Assessing management techniques by scoring between -3 to +3 for each defence on eg vulnerability to erosion; disruption to natural coastal processes and habitats; safety risk and life span/ maintenance costs. 6. Mapping sea defences: Using Google Earth as a base map of Swanage and Studland.
- DATA PRESENTATION: - Draw scale diagrams of beach profiles and then calculate the area of the beaches. - Tabulate the wave count data and make averages and then choose if the waves are constructive or destructive. - Tabulate and average the results from the bi-polar analysis at both sites. - Use data to make a choropleth map using GE Graph to produce a flood risk map of Swanage and Studland.
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FIELDWORK- Investigating land use
- AIMS: - To outline the growth and development of tourism in Swanage. - To evaluate the impact of tourism on the area, looking at social, economic and environmental impacts.
- RESEARCH: - Looking at old archive photos eg www.oldukphotos.com - Reading promortional leaflets and tourism statistics from the Tourist Office. - Look at old maps eg from 1900s, 1960s/70s, and 2014.
- FIELDWORK: 1. Land use survey: Using Google Earth, create 'polygons' in Swanage, and record the dominant land use in each polygon. 2. Also at each polygon, we measured: EQA (scoring the environmental quality of an area on eg litter, traffic, dereliction); Pedestrian count (over 3 minutes); and Index of Tourism Impact (scoring an area based on the impact made by tourism, eg tourist signposts, noise from tourism, tourist attractions visible).3. Comparison: Using old photos/ postcards to compare with the same sites. 4. Interview at the Tourism Office to find out about the development of tourism/ tourist numbers.
- DATA/TRENDS: EQA: Environmental quality increased away from tourist hub. Pedestrian count: Decreased away from tourist hub. ITI: Decreased rapidly away from tourist hub.
- DISPLAYING DATA: - Scatter Graphs: To show relationship between: 1. EQA and distance from main centre of tourism. 2. EQA and ITI. We could also have done a Spearman Rank Correlation Test. - Displaying the land use using Google Earth and GE Graph to make a graph showing the land use (eg different colours for different land uses).
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FIELDWORK- Profiling an area in need of rebranding
- RESEARCH: - To find census data for Swanage use www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk - Look at local blogs and newspapers. - Use www.flickr.com for images of the area.
- FIELDWORK: At 10 locations in the main tourist area of Swanage we:
- Carried out an EQI survey, scoring between -2 to +2 on street quality, tourist facilities, building quality, litter, noise and traffic/congestion.
- Did a place- check form recording out immediate reactions on what we do and don't like about that location.
- Took photographs to give a visual impression of each site.
- Carried out a questionaire about the image of the area by locals and visitors, perceptions of the environmental quality, tourist facilities, and whether they think rebranding is needed.
- DATA PRESENTATION: 1. Tabulate the questionnaire data: 55.6% of people thought Swanage needed rebranding. 2. Calculate average EQI values: Average total EQI= 1.94 (out of a max of 10).
- WHAT TO BUILD ON/ DO NEXT TIME: - Land use survey. - Pedestrian count - Looked for evidence of rebranding, eg a new pier, construction in Swanage etc.
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FIELDWORK- tourist pressure/ conflict at Studland
- BACKGROUND: There are over 1 million visitors/ year. It generates £9 million/ year and >100 jobs in the local area. Pressures include: - Trampling of fragile dune vegetation. - Fires caused by BBQs (now banned after a fire in 1997) - Litter (around 14 tonnes per week in peak season) - Traffic. Why is it important? - Has many ecosystems in a small area (sand dunes, dune heathland, a freshwater lake). - Many rare plant and animal species are found there (eg Smooth Snake, Sand Lizard, Spiny Seahorse). How is the National Trust managing it? - Threatened areas of eg marram grass are being roped off from visitors.
- RESEARCH: - National Trust website. - Geograph website. - Read local newspapers.
- HYPOTHESES: 1. The negative effect of tourist pressure on marram grass is greater at Knoll Beach than Middle Beach. 2. Tourist pressure is greater at the north end of Studland Bay.
- FIELDWORK: 1. Questionnaire- 5 questions (3 Yes/No; 1 multiple choice; 1 open opinion question). 2. Footfall study- At every 1km (6km beach), wait for 5 minutes and count the number of people who pass. Do it at morning, noon and evening and average. 3. Percentage of marram grass- At the same points as the footfall survey, use a quadrat and record the percentage of marram grass. 4. Bi-polar EQIs- At the same points as the footfall survey, do a EQI and then average the data.
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FIELDWORK- Investigating how successful rebranding
- AIMS: - To evaluate the success of rebranding strategies in Bournemouth. - To determine whether Bournemouth has been rebranded and whether further rebranding is needed.
- RESEARCH: - Look at old maps at www.oldmaps.co.uk - Look at archive articles in the Bournemouth Echo at www.bournemouthecho.co.uk
- FIELDWORK: At 8 sites in Bournemouth: 1. Analyse change between an archive photo of that location and the location now. 2. Place check - write what you immediately do and don't like about the location. 3. Take photos or videos of the location. 4. Do a questionnaire asking about people's opinions of Bournemouth and any rebranding that has happened there. Sample size = around 10 people at each location. 5. Conduct a cappuccino survey- record the price of a cappuccino at different locations (should be higher when closer to the promenade). 6. Record any derelict or vacant buildings.
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