River case studies

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  • Rivers - Case studies
    • Flooding
      • Pakistan 2010
        • Physical causes
          • Heavy rainfall - 278mm over 24hrs
          • Unusual conditions in the polar jet stream caused rains over previous months
          • The river Indus carries a lot of sediment from the Himalayas
        • Human causes
          • Urbanisation - impermeable surfaces increase surface flow
          • Deforestation in the Himalayas - logs stored in reservoirs caused more damage when released
          • Many people live next to the river for use of its fertile alluvial soils
          • 2/3rds of population depend on farming
        • Consequences
          • 2000 deaths
          • 20 million homeless
          • 1.2 million livestock lost - 6 million poultry lost
          • $10bn cost - $7bn in infrastructure alone
          • Farming hugely impacted
          • 11,000 schools damaged , 100's of bridges, 200 healthcare centres
        • Fact file
          • 1/5th of Pakistan flooded - 69,000 km of fertile land flooded
          • GDP per capita $3000
          • Flooding lasted 3 weeks
          • 170 million depend upon the river  Indus
        • Responses
          • Emergency shelter for 900,000
          • $230 given to returning families and food packages for 1 month
          • Only 56% of the  $1.96 bn asked for was given in aid - DONOR FATIGUE
          • Pakistan army was criticised for being slow to give aid
      • Cumbria 2009
        • Physical  causes
          • Heavy rains 314mm in 24hrs
          • Prolonged rainfall - weeks of heavy rain
          • Flood defences only protected up to a 1 in 100 year flood
        • Human causes
          • Urbanisation - more impermeable surfaces means shorter lag time
          • Cockermouth was built on a flood plain
          • River had not been dredged of sediment for a long time
        • Fact file
          • GDP per capita $ 38,000
          • 1 in 1000 year flood
          • Flooding lasted 1 week
        • Consequences
          • 500 people had to stay with relatives/ emergency shelter
          • 1 death
          • £276million bill
          • cost to tourism £15million
          • 20 road bridges destroyed,100's of footpath bridges
          • 18 schools shut
        • Responses
          • £1 million clean up, £5.4 million to fix roads
          • Army rebuilt many bridges, lifeboats used to resque people from homes
    • Flood defences
      • Hard Engineering - 3 Gorges Dam
        • Fact file
          • Yangtze river, 3rd longest in the world - seasonal flooding in June/August
          • Biggest dam in the world - 101m high, can hold 22km of flood water
          • 1954 flood killed 33,000 people and 18million were made homeless
          • 3600km of levees on river bank
        • Positives
          • Largest hydroelectric station in the world - supplies 3% of Chinas electricity
          • Larger boats can navigate the river easily due to a deeper river channel
            • Increased trade
          • Can resist 1 in 100 year flood
        • Negatives
          • Reservoir has flooded 13 cities, 1000+ villages, 2 million had to be relocated
          • The yangtze river carries a lot of sediment - build up of this could lead to dam failiure
          • Destroys habitats and endangers species
          • Increased erosion and landslides
      • Soft engineering - Abingdon
        • Fact file
          • South- east England - built on the floodplains of the river Ock and the river Thames
          • Regular flooding occurs - July 2007, 660 properties flooded
          • Hard engineering options were too expensive and possibility of flooding downstream
        • Defences
          • Gravel soakaways on the A34
          • Riprarian buffers on the river banks - trees lining banks
          • Low value land allowed to flood i.e sports grounds
          • Planning restrictions - Tesco had to install permeable tarmac surface  for the new extension
          • 24 hr flood warning service  - advice on the internet about flood

Comments

Mr A Gibson

What makes this an effective revision aid is the inclusion of enough detail for case studies to hit level 3 in longer exam answers and the way the information is categorized within each example.

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