Muslim Beliefs & Practises

  • Created by: Austinnnn
  • Created on: 25-11-18 13:40

Types of Muslims

Sunni Muslims = Traditional Muslims.

Shi'a Muslims = believe that leadership of Islam was passed to Abu Bakr's son.

Both began after Abu Bakr died.

Beliefs they share:

  • Qur'an is exact word of God.
  • There is only one God.


  • Sunni - God has planned everything (inc. responses)
  • Shi'a - God has planbed things but you have a choice.
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Qualities of God

Qualities = Characteristics

Qualities of God:

  • Omnipotent (all-powerful)
  • Just (fair)
  • Merciful (repentence, forgiveness)
  • Judge (descicion maker)

They all show ultimate power, God is above all (inc. human understanding)

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Angels = Messengers of God


  • Jibril
  • Mikail
  • Ishmael

Roles of Angels:

  • Watch & record in Book of Deeds.
  • Messengers
  • Jibril - revealed Qur'an to Muhammad over 20 years.
  • Mikail - thunder, lightning & nature
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Prophets = someone who spreads the word/mesage of God.

Risallah = Communication between God & humans is through prophets.

Prohets give messages and teachings.


  • Adam - Kaba, 1st human made by God.
  • Ibrahim - willing to sacrafice son, destroyed statues, came out of fire unharmed, rebult Kaba, id-ul-Adha.
  • Muhammad - recieved Qu'ran, established Mekkah & Medinah as muslim cities, left guidance in the Hadith and Sunnah.
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Holy Books

Qur'an = Recite, repeat.

Qur'an is exact word of God, guide.

Muhammad recieved Qur'an over a 20 year period.

Other Holy Books that Muslims believe in:

  • Psalms
  • Torah
  • Gospels
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LAD & Heaven and Hell

Predestiantion = belief everything is planned, Shi'a believe you have ability to choose,. God is supreme as can plan everyone's life.

Yawmuddhin = Day of Judgement. Every muslim raised, book of deeds.

Akhirah = belief in LAD.

Heaven is paradise. Hell is torture.

To go to heaven muslims must be:

  • Faithful
  • Obedient
  • Committed
  • Forgiving
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Tawhid = Oneness of God

Nobody can be put on the same level as God, nothing is equal to him.

Muslims say this when they are going to die and it is the first thing a Muslim baby hears.

Opposite of Tawhid = Shirk (greatest sin)

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Five Pillars & Ten Obligatory Acts

5 Pillars = Basic duties all Muslims must complete.

Shi'a Additions:

  • Jihad
  • Khums = 20% (replaces Zakah)
  • Encourage people to do good.
  • Discourage sin.
  • Be loving to friends of God.
  • Do not asscociate with enemies of God.
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Shahada = Belief in oneness of God and Muhammad as his prophet.

You can not do the other 4 pillars without this one, foundation.

First thing a baby hears so they are welcomed to world of Islam.

Last thing said to show faith all the way through their lives.

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Salah = Daily Prayer in a mosque, home or anywhere clean.

It is done 5 times a day for sunni and 3 for Shi'a.

Muslims do wuzu before prayer. Shows spiritual cleanliness, face mekkah, porstration, rak'ah.

Prayer shows communication between God and humans, committment, obedience, faith.

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Fasting = No eating, drinking, sex or smoking during daylight hours.

Ramadan = month where sawm happens.


  • Pregnant women
  • Small children
  • Diabetics
  • Eldery
  • Seriously ill people

id-ul-Fitr ends the fast, may goto mosque.

Fast to understand those in need, remember the night of power.

Shows committment, obedience, dedication, strength.

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Charity = Almsgiving.

2.5% to the mosque for the needy.

Sadaqah = voluntary contributions.

Giving Zakah shows brotherhood, unity, community.

Khums is 20% donation by shi'a muslims.

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Hajj = Pilgrimage to Mekkah on the 8th - 12th of Dhul-Hijjah.

They follow footsteps of Muhammad. Set route and locations.

Go round Kaba 7 times, arafat (throw stones, standing), zamzam well, Mina,

id-ul-Adha ends Hajj.


  • dedication
  • committment
  • obedience
  • resillience
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id-ul-Fitr & id-ul-Adha

id-ul-Fitr = festival at end of Ramadan

presents, food, mosque, family.

Remembers night of power and the unfortunate

id-ul-Adha = festival at end of Hajj.

Sacrafice goat to remember Ibrihim, family.

Shows how far you will go for your faith.

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Ashura & Jihad

Ashura = a shi'a memorial day.

Remembers an early leader who died in battle.

Jihad = struggle.

Greater Jihad = personal struggle to resist temptation

Lesser Jihad = duty to defend your religion or country from threat.

Greater JIhad is more important as it effects every muslim every day.

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