ISLAM - NIGHT BEFORE NOTES

Starters

Muslims have 99 different names for Allah e.g.

 Al Muhyi: The giver of life or Al Salam: The source of peace

Sin of Shirk: Biggest sin in Islam - if you say you're equal or better than Allah. 

Muslims believe that because Allah is transcendent (above all), they cannot fully understand God. So this is why they have 99 names that they believe reveal different ideas about Allah's nature. 

The Qur'an: Holy book of Islam. it must never touch the floor. Muslims recite the first five chapters five times a day. There are 114 chapters (Surah) and each one is divded into verses (Ayat). 

Prophet of Allah: Muhammad.  

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Sunni and Shi'a Islam

Six beliefs in Islam (Sunni):

  • Tawhid: Oneness of Allah.
  • Malaikah: Existance of Angels.
  • Holy Books.
  • Nubuwwah and Risalah: Prophethood.
  • Day of Judgement.
  • Al-Qadr: Predestination.
  • Importance: They are fundamental beliefs and the centre of the Muslim faith. 

Five roots of Usul ad-Din (Shi'a): 

  • Tawhid.
  • 'Adl: Justice and fairness.
  • Nubuwwah.
  • Imamah: Successors to Muhammad.
  • Mi'ad: Day of Judgment and the Ressurection
  • importance: Unite Shi'a Muslims and they are the basis of the religion. What it means to be a Muslim.
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Nature of Allah.

Transcendent: Above and beyond anything on earth.

Immanent: Very close to humans and acts on earth everyday.

Omnipotent: All powerful.

Omnibenevolent: All loving.

Omniscient: All knowing.

Omnipresent: Everywhere.

Merciful: Forgives when people go wrong.

Just: Judges in a fair way.

Importance: Help Muslims gain knowledge of the 'unknowable' nature of Allah. They can show Allah more respect. 

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Prophethood

Adam: The first Muslim as well as the first prophet. Allah created Adam as the first human and gave him the role of looking after Earth. (Also in Christianity and Judaism).

Abraham: The father of the Arab people as well as the jewish through his sons. He had to sacrifice his sons for Allah. this teaches Muslims to be prepared to submit to Allah. (Also in Christianity and Judaism).

Ishmael: One of Abraham's sons. Ancestor to Muhammad.  Associated with the building of Mecca. 

Moses: Taught and practised the religion of his ancestors, thereby confirming the scriptures and prophets who before him. Sent to give guidance to the Egyptians and Israelites. (Also in Christianity and Judaism).

David: Law giver of Allah. Defeated Goliath whe he was a soldier. Psalms of David are recognised as one of the Holy books. (Also in Judaism).

Jesus: Recognised for his miraculous birth to the virgin Mary, but do not accept that he was cruxified or ressurected. 

 

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Angels

Made from light. They are invisible and have no free will. They must do as Allah says.

Archangels: The highest status for an Angel. There are three main angels in Islam:

Jibril: Reveals messages to the prophets. (Gabriel in Christianity and Judaism)

Izrafil: Responsible for blowing the trumpet to symbolise the coming of Judgement day (end of the world).

Mika'il: Angel of Mercy. 

other angels include:

Izra'il: This is the angel of Death. He takes your soul from your body when you die.

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Life after Death

This belief is fundamental to Islam. It features in both Sunni and Shi'a Islam.

Heaven: Jannah: A paridise. People return to their younger states and enjoy life with God. It is a reward for obeying God. 

Hell: Jahannam: Fire and Pain. Place of punishment for those who deserve endless pain and torture. Governed by Shaytan (the Satan).

Because of these beliefs, Muslims behave in a way that guarentees they go to Heaven. They want to remain close to god so carry out acts such as Zakah.

They are more aware of their lives and think it is important to value forgiveness and follow the Shari'ah law.

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Obligatory acts

Ten Obligatory acts of Islam:

Shahadah: Decleration of faith.

Salah: Five prayers a day.

Zakah: Giving 2.5% of their wealth to the poor.

Sawm: Fasting.

Hajj: Pilgrimage.

Khums: 1/5 of their wealth to poor or descendents of Muhammad and Shi'a Muslims.

Jihad: Struggle.

Amr-bil-Maroof: Commanding what is good. Nahi Anil Munkar: Forbid what is evil.

Tawalla: Express love toward good. Tabarra: Move away from evil.

(Last two work in pairs).

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Night of Power - Laylat Al Qadr

  • Links to Ramadam. Took place at the time of the prophet Muhammad.
  • When the angel Jibril visted Muhammad, he was praying in Cave Hira.
  • Jibril wanted Muhammad to read some words but Muhammad could read or write.
  • What Jibril told Muhammad was the firts words revealed by Allah. 
  • It was the start of his prophethood.
  • This is the start of revaltion of the Qur'an. 
  • Muslims seek to become closer to Allah.  Muslims spend the final days of Ramadam in seclusion to focus on prayer, reflection and repentance.
  • Muslims believe they can also experience their own Night of Power. 
  • The night all prayers are accepted, When angels came to support.
  • Some say it is better than 1,000 months.
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Celebrations and commemorations.

Id-ul-Fitr:

The end of Sawm. thanking Allah for the strength he gave them to complete the pillar. They buy new clothes and attend special ceremonies in Mosques and on the streets. First celebrated by Muhammad in 624 CE.

Id-ul-Adha:

Celebrates trust e.g when Abraham sacrificed his sons for God. They sacrafice an animal and share it among family.  It is important in trusting faith and Allah. Thinking of those completing Hajj.

Id-ul-Ghadeer:

Remembers the appointment of Ali ibn & Abi Talib by Muhammad as his successor. Death of Muhammad. Fasting and sharing food with the poor. 

Ashura:

Commemorating the grandson on Muhammad. Mourning rituals and passion plays. Wear black.  How Noah left the arc and how Moses was saved from the Egyptians.

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Crime and Justice

See my mind map on Crime and Punishment with views of Christians, Muslims and combined views.

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Muhammad

Muhammad: Gave the final message to Muslims from Allah. Considered the founder of Islam. The book of his teachings the Qur'an has remained unchanged over time.

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