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  • Created by: SBowles1
  • Created on: 02-05-16 17:23

Literary Devices - Symbols/Motifs

Figurative Language

Symbols:

Symbols are images, ideas, sounds or words that represent something else and help to understand an idea or a thing.

Motifs:

Motif is an object or idea that repeats itself throughout a literary work.

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Literary Devices - Extended Metaphor

Figurative Language

Where a metaphor runs throughout the piece.

Example:

“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players;

They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts.” - William Shakespeare, 'As You Like It'

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Literary Devices - Zoomorphism/Anthropomorphism

Figurative Language

Techniques in which a writer ascribes human traits, ambitions, emotions or entire behavior to animals, non-human beings, natural phenomena or objects.

Anthropomorphism is the more sophisticated term for zoomorphism.

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Literary Devices - Onomatopoeia

Figurative Language

Words that sound like they are said.

Example:

"Bang", "Boom", "Buzz"

These are often used on their own in minor sentences, or are used as a way to describe a sound to the reader. Depending on the sound, onomatopoeia can be used to surprise or create suspence, as well as other effects.

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Literary Devices - Alliteration

Figurative Language

When multiple words start with the same letter.

Example:

"But a better butter makes a batter better."

Here there is alliteration because of the repetition of the B

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Literary Devices - Alliteration

Figurative Language

When multiple words start with the same letter.

Example:

"But a better butter makes a batter better."

Here there is alliteration because of the repetition of the B

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Lexis - Pre and Post Modifyers

Word Classes

Pre-modifyers:

Adjective or adverb before the noun or verb ("The calm sea")

Post-modifyers:

Adjective or adverbs after the noun or verb ("The sea was calm")

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Lexis - Adjectives and Adverbs

Word Classes

Adjectives:

Words that describe nouns.

Adverbs:

Words that describe verbs.

Example:

"The deep sea was calmly lying still."

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Literary Devices - Simile

Figurative Language

When describing something as being like something else.

Example:

"The moons reflection on the sea looked like diamonds"

Unlike a metaphor, you identify that something is like something, rather than it being something it isn't.

Similes can be mostly be identified by "like" or "as". (like something or as ___ as something)

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Literary Devices - Tripling (List of Three)

Figurative Language

When three words are used together to describe something

Example:

"The deep, blue, shiney sea was lying still"

This is an example of a list of three adjective describing a noun. 

In a sentence: "the tripling of the adjectives "deep, blue, shiney" creates....."

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Literary Devices - Metaphor

Figurative Language

When describing something as if it is something else.

Example:

"The sea was covered in diamonds."

The sea is not literally covered in diamonds but this is a way to describe the shine and sparkle on the sea's surface.

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Literary Devices - Personification

Figurative Language

Personifaction is when a non-human object is described in a human way.

Example:

"The sea was dancing"

Personification is a bit like a metaphor, but refers to human actions by a non-human noun.

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Lexis - Nouns and Verbs

Word Classes

Noun:

A name of an object, place, person etc.

Verb:

An action.

Example:

"The sea was lying still."

 

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Lexis - Determiners

Word Classes

Indefinate;

  • A
  • An

Definate:

  • The

Demonstratives:

  • This
  • That
  • These
  • Those
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Lexis - Quantifiers

Word Classes

  • a few
  • a little
  • much
  • many
  • a lot of
  • most
  • some
  • any
  • enough
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Lexis- High/Low Frequency Lexis

High Frequency:

Words that would be used in informal conversation/situations.

Means lexis that is used often.

Low Frequency:

Words that would not be typical in informal conversation/situations.

Means lexis that is not often used.

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Lexis - Field Specific Lexis/Jargon

Lexis used which shows knowledge on a specific subject.

For Example:

  • A car mechanic will used car specific lexis 
  • A chef will use terms that will only be understood by other chefs

Jargon is just the same but a more colloquial term.

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Lexis - Syllabols

Monosyllabic

Words with one syllable

Polysyllabic

Words with multiple syllables

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Grammar - Imperatives and Declaratives

Sentence Functions

Imperative:

A command that is given

Declarative:

A statement

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Grammar - Exclamative and Interrogative

Sentence Funtions

Exclamative:

A word or sentence that denotes an exclamation

Interrogative:

A question (to gather information)

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Grammar - Simple and Compound Sentences

Sentence Types:

Simple:

A single clause

Compound:

Two clauses that make sense on their own.

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Grammar - Complex and Minor Sentences

Sentence Types:

Complex:

Sentence containing a subordinate clause or multiple clauses

Minor:

A sentence which does not necessarily contain a verb

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