Humanities GCSE Revision for Family

These cards contain all of the knowledge I will need to pass the 'Family and Socailisation' part of my exams.

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  • Created by: G. Birch
  • Created on: 09-04-11 12:00

Life Stages

There are 4 main life stages- 

  • Childhood where we are dependent on others and socialisation takes place
  • Full time employment and adult responsibilities, marriage and family
  • Children are grown up so have less responsibilities but may have to look after parents.  Active and independent past own retirement. 
  • Old Age – dependent on others

GENERATION- People born at approximately the same time

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Life Stages

There are 4 main life stages- 

  • Childhood where we are dependent on others and socialisation takes place
  • Full time employment and adult responsibilities, marriage and family
  • Children are grown up so have less responsibilities but may have to look after parents.  Active and independent past own retirement. 
  • Old Age – dependent on others

GENERATION- People born at approximately the same time

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What is and isn't a family

Household:  The people who live in a dwelling (home).  They may or may not be related.

Family: the people you are related to.  Main types of family

  •  Nuclear Family: 2 parents and their children
  •  Extended family: Includes grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – a family is said to be extended if three or more generations live together
  •  Lone Parent Family: One parent and his or her dependent children
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Polygamy

Polygamy: Having more than one marriage partner in a culture where it is allowed.

Polygyny: Man be married to several wiveslyndry: Woman being married to several husbands (much rarer)

 

  • Po

 

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What is and isn't a family

Household:  The people who live in a dwelling (home).  They may or may not be related.

Family: the people you are related to.  Main types of family

  •  Nuclear Family: 2 parents and their children
  •  Extended family: Includes grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – a family is said to be extended if three or more generations live together
  •  Lone Parent Family: One parent and his or her dependent children
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How the Family has changed over time

Pre-Industrial Family was nuclear as most people died before they became grandparents.

Industrial Family (1750-1900) – tended to be extended as people were moving to the growing towns and cities where there was limited housing

Today – Privatised nuclear families common – closeness between husband and wife, parents and children, weaker ties with extended family.  But also Family Diversity

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Other Types of Family

Empty Nest Family: Originally a nuclear family, where the children have grown up and left home – “flown the nest”.

 Reconstituted Family: A new family that has been created floowing divorce and re-marriage, this family may include step brothers and sisters.

Relationships between couples:

Monogamy: Is being married to just one person at a time.

 Serial Monogamy: Having several marriage partners one after the other (not at the same time)

Bigamy: Having more than one marriage partner in a country where it is an offence.

 

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Family Diversity

  • In the past, 1 type of family was dominant in each time period – that type of family was so popular as it met the needs of that society the most effectively.
  •  Social changes have meant that there is no longer the typical family.
  •  These changes include:
  • Family Breakdown
  •  Legal rights for cohabiting couples
  • Legal rights for Gay couples (now they are able to get married)
  • Multi-cultural nature of society
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Other Types of Family

Empty Nest Family: Originally a nuclear family, where the children have grown up and left home – “flown the nest”.

 Reconstituted Family: A new family that has been created floowing divorce and re-marriage, this family may include step brothers and sisters.

Relationships between couples:

Monogamy: Is being married to just one person at a time.

 Serial Monogamy: Having several marriage partners one after the other (not at the same time)

Bigamy: Having more than one marriage partner in a country where it is an offence.

 

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The Cereal Box Family

While the media may portray the nuclear family (Cereal Box Family) as most typical and many people live in a nuclear family at some point in their lives, there is so much diversity that it is very hard to talk about there just being one type of family in modern Britain.

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Is the Family a good thing? YES

Yes it provides-

  • Socialisation
  • Emotional Stablilty
  • Financial Security
  • Reproduction
  • Identity
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Is the Family a good thing? NO

No it creates-

  • Domestic Violence
  •   Child Abuse
  • Psychological Damage
  • Exploitation of Women – ‘Double Burden’/‘Double Shift
  • 
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Double Burden- Definition

Double burden is a term describing the workload of women and men who work to earn money, but also have responsibility for unpaid, domestic labor. This phenomenon is also known as the "second shift," as in Arlie Hochschild's book of the same name.

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How People see marriage

Functionalists:  See a Nuclear Family as essential in modern Britain for providing socialisation and a ‘warm bath’ (emotional Support)

Feminists:  See family as Patriarchal and harmful for women –

They say this is why ¾ of divorces are initiated by women

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Do Children Need Two Parents?

YES

 According to functionalists, only a family with both parents would provide the right environment to successfully socialise children.

Functionalists argue that Lone- Parent Families are dysfunctional eg. underachieving at school, more likely to misuse drugs/alcohol and are more likely to be unemployed.

As most lone-parent families are headed by mothers, boys miss out on a positive male role model, therefore they will not be able to become good fathers and husbands themselves.

Children raised in lone-parent families are more likely to be scared of commitment and separate when they have children, carrying on the pattern.

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Do Children Need Two Parents?

NO

Lone-parent families can provide the right environment to raise children (financially stable and warm and loving). It is better for children to only live with one parent who loves them, than in an unhappy or abusive two-parent family Lots of children from two parent families can do badly at school or misuse substances etc, not just those from lone parent families. Many single mothers are ‘scapegoats’ (unfairly blamed) for society’s problems.  The overwhelming majority of single parents did not become pregnant to live on state benefits – it was not deliberate at all. The opposing arguments are too moralising and out of touch with the realities of life today.

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The Rise of Cohabitation

 The reasons for the rise in cohabitation include:

  • Secularisation (decline in religious belief)
  • Changing attitudes – living together before marriage no longer seen as wrong
  • Increasing legal rights for cohabiting couples
  • Marriage seen as very expensive

      REMEMBER:           For many couples, cohabitation is only a temporary stage and tends to lead to marriage

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Rising Divorce Rates

Now 40% of marriages end on divorce.  Reasons for this:

  • Secularisation 
  • Changing social attitudes- divorce is now not seen as morally wrong
  • Changing laws- divorce is now easier and cheaper
  • Women have increased financial security- no need for a man for support
  • People have high expectations
  • Feminists argue that people seek divorce because they are tired of being exploited in the family

However the divorce rate is slowing down, though

this could be connected to the fact that the marriage

rate is also slowing down.

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Does this mean a decline in marriage for good?

 The fact that divorce and cohabitation are rising and the marriage rate is decreasing suggests that marriage is a lot less important

However,

  • Many people still value marriage as the ideal
  • Many people who divorce will eventually re-marry – they obviously don’t think it is a bad thing
  • Cohabitation often seen as a trial marriage
  • Changing relationships between husbands and wives shows that marriage is adapting to suit needs of modern Britain
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Alternatives to Family

There are other alternatives to married or family life-

 ‘Singlehood’ people who live on their own – often only a temporary phase

Communes – group of people who live together and share property and family responsibilities (eg Kibbutz)

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Polygamy

Polygamy: Having more than one marriage partner in a culture where it is allowed.

Polygyny: Man be married to several wiveslyndry: Woman being married to several husbands (much rarer)

 

  • Po

 

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How the Family has changed over time

Pre-Industrial Family was nuclear as most people died before they became grandparents.

Industrial Family (1750-1900) – tended to be extended as people were moving to the growing towns and cities where there was limited housing

Today – Privatised nuclear families common – closeness between husband and wife, parents and children, weaker ties with extended family.  But also Family Diversity

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How the family varies

  • The family tends to adapt to meet the needs of its members in that type of society.
  • Family also varies according to social class.
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Diversity within Families

Not only have the types of families changed, but the roles people do in them have changed too-

  • The rise in lone-mothers means that that families are no longer patriarchal (male dominated)
  • Some families have become symmetrical (where the workload is shared equally by the male and female)
  • There are now house-husbands and women working instead of the males being the breadwinner.
  • In reconstituted families there may be the issue of step-siblings and children living in two homes.
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The Cereal Box Family

While the media may portray the nuclear family (Cereal Box Family) as most typical and many people live in a nuclear family at some point in their lives, there is so much diversity that it is very hard to talk about there just being one type of family in modern Britain.

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Is the Family a good thing? YES

Yes it provides-

  • Socialisation
  • Emotional Stablilty
  • Financial Security
  • Reproduction
  • Identity
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