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Key words

Culture - The shared way of life of a particular society, referring to all
aspects of behaviour that are learned and which provide the context in
which daily life is lived.

Belief ­ Something accepted as true or valid without actual proof.

Attitude ­ A state of mind…

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The word is powerful because it helps us explain the different ways
people behave. The ability to explain different types of behaviour can in
turn lead to better relations between people of different cultures. The
more you understand about another group the less likely you are to
offend people from…

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Over 7 million years human migration took groups all over the world. In
different areas these faced groups faced a variety of conditions. This
led to the development of different cultures.

The natural environment

Groups adapted to survive, and in doing so developed their own

House design

The natural…

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These cultures grew wealthier. They could use this wealth to
develop their art and technology.


So, even though human beings had learned that living in groups and co-
operating was the best way to survive, they learned to do this in
different ways. Some were more successful than…

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Kamala and Amala were two young girls discovered living with
wolves in 1920 near Midnapore, India. They are two of the better-
documented cases of feral children. While the girls' ages at the
time of their discovery is ultimately unknown, Kamala appears to
have been about seven or eight years…

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Consider the extreme case of the "Jim twins." Identical twins Jim
Lewis and Jim Springer were only four weeks old when they were
separated; each infant was taken in by a different adoptive family.
At age five, Lewis learned that he had a twin, but he said that the

Page 7

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Methods of learning include

Imitation ­copying our parents

Identification ­ eg baby follows older sibling around

Role learning ­ eg, helping to clear away at the end of a meal.

Conditioning ­ rewards ands sanctions applied to encourage or
discourage certain behaviours.


There are other agents of socialisation…

Page 8

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Family Mass media

Laws A person's Peer groups

Role models Religious



A moral issue concerns beliefs about whether an action is right or
wrong in the sense of it being good or bad. We learn what is right and
wrong through the various agents…

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We are living through a period of great cultural, technological and
scientific change. As such society is under pressure to adapt and
rethink its ethics in the light of the new situations

In the light of technological advances the following issues have been
raised and need to be discussed


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Background ­ Escaped from persecution in Switzerland in the sixteenth
century. As a group of Christians they wanted to practice Christianity
differently to the dominant Catholic tradition. They wanted to simplify
prayer and church services and baptise adults and not children. In the
seventeen century…


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