History OCR AS Crusades Revision Cards

Cards with bullet-pointed information regarding the Crusades (First - Third) and the Crusader States.

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Muslim Sunni Faith - 11th Century

  • Largest denomination in Islam.
  • Historical roots in the majority group who followed Abu Bakr, an effective leader, as Muhammad's successor.
  • Believe they follow the 'sunnah' or 'custom' of the Prophet.
  • 940 million.
  • 90% of total Muslims.
  • Located in most Muslim countries.
  • Leaders 'imams'.
  • Holy sites include Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem.
  • Seljuk Turks were Sunni.
  • Dominant apart from in Egypt.
  • Leadership in Baghdad.
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Muslim Shia Faith - 11th Century

  • Followed Ali, the closest relative of Muhammed.
  • 120 million.
  • 10% of total Muslims.
  • Dominant in Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Egypt.
  • Leaders 'mujahids'.
  • Holy sites include Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Majaf, Karbala.
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Islam Before the Crusades - Seljuks

Seljuk Dominance:

  • Seljuk Turks came to power and established a state in Persia (Iran) by 1050.
  • Before this, the Middle East had been fairly stable, allowing Christians to visit holy places with relative ease.

Seljuk Expansion:

  • Expanded quickly.
  • 1055 - Invited to Baghdad by the Caliph to act as champions of Sunni Islam against the Shi'ite rulers of Egypt.
  • This in itself was destabalising for the region.
  • 1050s - Seljuk armies raided deep in Anatolia, dangerous for Byzantine Empire.
  • 1064 - Turned on Armenia, then Georgia in 1068.
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Islam Before the Crusades - Battle of Manzikert, 1

  • Acts of aggression by Seljuks made the Byzantine Emperor respond: the Battle of Manzikert.
  • Disasterous failure for the Byzantines.
  • Seljuks took lands that included almost all of Asia Minor from the Byzantines, showed no sign of slowing towards the Byzantine capital Constantinople.
  • Seljuks began to obstruct Christians on pilrgrimage to Jerusalem.

The threat posed by the Seljuks caused Emperor Alexius to ask for help from the Pope; this resulted in the call to crusade in 1095.

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Decline of the Seljuks

  • The Seljuk Empire was beginning to break up just before the First Crusade.
  • Calpih tried to mediate between those competin for control, while also trying to increase his independent authority in Baghdad.
  • Regional governors, generals, soldiers tried to establish themselves as independent rulers.
  • Distinct lack of unity in the region when the First Crusade began in 1095.
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A Bitter Rivalry...

Sunni:

  • Dominant apart from in Egypt.
  • BUT - Not just Sunni Muslims living in those territories. Often there were some Shi'ias and also some Chrsitians.

Shia:

  • Controlled several areas later taken by the Crusaders such as Tyre and Acre.
  • Had controlled Jerusalem until 1071 when it was taken by a Turkish general.
  • Took it back in 1098 when the Turks were preoccupied with the arrival of the First Crusade.

Rivalry:

  • Prepared to ally with the Crusaders against each other rather than form a united front against the Christians.
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Crusader Advantage

  • The situation in the East was of advantage to the Crusaders. They faced a disunited region where individual local eladers could be overcome and were more concerned with fighting each other.
  • Sunni leadership was distracted by troubles closer to home.
  • Muslim leaders didn't recognise the Crusader army as one of conquest + consolidation - thought it was just another Byzantine raid.
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Byzantium Before 1095

  • Byzantium dominated the Mediterranean world in the early Middle Ages.
  • Resisted rapid expansion of Islam from 630s onwards.
  • Held off two determined and prolonged attempts to capture Constantinople by Muslim forces.

What was Byzantium?

  • Greek-speaking Roman Empire.
  • Capital - Constantinople.
  • Was a continuation of the Roman Empire; Rome was capital of the West, and fell to the barbarians. East survived as Byzantium.
  • Greatest extent during 500s AD, although it revived in power and influence during the 10th-11th century.
  • At death of Emperor Basil II in 1025 it was the premier poer of Europe + the Middle East.
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But Half a Century Later...

  • Byzantium lost control of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks (after Manzikert, 1071).
  • Empire had to fight desperately to resist invasion from the Normans based in Southern Italy.

Why the Dramatic Reversal?

  • Periods of misrule.
  • Military breakdown.
  • Nature of Turkish settlement in Asia Minor.
  • Structural changes in economy and society which made maintenance of the self-contained and centralised Byzantine state more difficult.
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Alexius Comnenus

A strong leader:

  • Since 1081 the Empire at least had an able and extremely determined ruler: Alexius Comnenus, aided by a number of able family members and colleagues (e.g. Anna Dalessa).

Requesting help:

  • Alexius requested for help for Eastern Christians which was used as part of the justification for Pope Urban II's call to arms in 1095.
  • Doubtful he expected such an overwhelming response.
  • Alexius probably wanted some western mercenaries that he could employ to defend his frontiers against the Turks and other potential invaders.
  • Instead he received a vast army of westerners bound on conquest of the Holy Land, and, by implication, a danger to the territory of Byzantium itself.
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The Spanish Reconquista

  • Most of the Iberian Peninsula had been conquered by Muslims from North Africa in the 8th century but they were eventually halted.
  • By the middle of the 11th century the small Christian kingdoms in northern Spain were firmly established and the first stirrings of the Reconquista were felt.
  • The second half of the 11th century was a time of Latin (e.g. Western European) expansion in Spain.
  • In the Iberian peninsula the small Christian states in the north were learning to exploit the weaknesses in the Muslim state of an-Andalus.
  • The most impressive gain was made in 1085 when Toledo fell to King Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile.
  • The popes generally supported this expansion, which was mirrored in Sicily in 1061-91. They could do little more than encourage these efforts and supervise the reintroduction of the church into the re-conquered areas.
  • The Reconquista is significant at least partly because the Church's central authorities had two generations to come to see the West as engaged in a single struggle of a religious nature. This was crucial for the preaching + planning of the First Crusade.
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Urban II + the Preaching of the First Crusade (1)

Alexius' Appeal:

  • Appealed to the pope to encourage westerners to help defend the Eastern Church against the Turks.
  • Probably expected a steady stream of mercenaries, not crusader army.
  • Holy war in the mind of Urban before? A convenient appeal?

Council of Piacenza:

  • First week of March 1095.
  • Council of bishops.
  • Alexius' appeal arrived during the council.
  • Urban responded by preaching a sermon urging westerners to help.

Preaching Tour:

  • Urban preached across France for a year. Impressive, theatrical.
  • Presided over councils at Clermont (1095), Marmautier (March 1096), Nimes (July 1096).
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Urban II + the Preaching of the First Crusade (2)

How else publicised?

  • Preached cross at Clermont, Limoges, Angers, etc.
  • Presided over cross-taking ceremonies at Tours.
  • Celebrated feast of Assumption at shrine to Mary at Le Puy (Adhemar, papal legate, from there).
  • Celebrated feasts of St. Giles and St. Hilary.
  • Wrote to Flanders inviting inhabitants to join + those in Bologna.

What Urban called for:

  • Accounts differ on what he said.
  • War of liberation of Easter Christians + Jerusalem.
  • Unite East + West Churches.
  • Reconquest of Christian territory.
  • Pilgrimage linked with vow and privileges.
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Becoming a Crusader

Taking Vow:

  • Solemn promise + commitment to God (legally enforceable).
  • Sewing of a cross on clothes as a public sign of commitment.
  • New element in Christian holy war.

Privileges:

  • Becane temporary clergymen: lands, property + family protected by Church.
  • Exempt from legal prosecution apart from under church law.
  • Didn't have to pay taxes, interest or debts when on Crusade.

Indulgences:

  • A way of paying off penance (punishment for sins) + avoiding hell. People were cleansed of sins for taking part.
  • Battle for eternal life was very important - religion was in every aspect of life + people lived short and brutal lives.
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The People's Crusade (1)

15000 people joined the People's Crusade.

Peter the Hermit:

  • A preacher who had been active in central France.
  • Not attractive - dirty + muddy as he rode on a donkey around country tracks.
  • Eloquent + 'radiated an unusual power'. Reputation was before him which must have contributed to his huge success.
  • Preached around France then headed to Germany en route to the East.

Were the people on the People's Crusade poor?

  • Traditional interpretation that People's Crusade made up of poor peasants + knights, explaining why they were defeated so easily in the East.
  • Modern view: Fewer nobles + mounted knights than the main crusade but not a disorganised rabble - had cohesion, funds + leadership.
  • Leader called Walter Sans-Avior (known as Walter the Penniless) but may have just been his family name.
  • Managed to make it to Constantinople largely intact.
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The People's Crusade (2)

In the East:

  • Some clashed on the way but arrived mostly intact.
  • At Constantinole Peter left to attend audience by Emperor who gave him rich presents + good advice (wait for the other Crusaders).
  • Others were impatient + plundered until Byzantines advised them to cross to Turks' frontier.
  • Raided in Turkish territory and one got trapped. Main army set off to rescue but Turks destroyed them on 21 October 1096.
  • Only a few survived, including Peter.

Consequences:

  • Accomplished nothing for Christianity.
  • Unfavourable impression of Christians for the Byzantines - Distrust built, leading the Byzantines to look skeptically on future Crusading armies.
  • Peter accompanied the First Crusade to Jerusalem.
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Other Armies in 1096

There were other contingents from Germany. They didn't reach Constantinople.

  • Behaved like barbarians: looting and ravaging Hungary before being slaughtered.
  • Slaughtered German Jews (anti-Semitic massacres). Jews were under the protection of the Holy Roman Emperor but Crusaders were inflamed by irresponsible preachers + were looking for wealth. 10000 Jews killed.
  • The argument for this violence was that Jews, enemies of Christ, deserved to be punished. More likely motive was greed.
  • Another argment: Early crusaders did not have an effective image of their enemy (Muslims) so Jews provided a convenient substitute.
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The First Crusade in Constantinople (1)

Eastern arrival:

  • Main armies arrived between November 1096 and May 1097.
  • Discipline problems in such large forces + language barriers.
  • Questions over leadership - Adhemar spiorital but no clear secular.

Alexius' worries:

  • Large force: 300000 - 700000.
  • People's Crusade caused a lot of trouble.
  • Size + strengt of force was enormous - could turn on Constantinople.
  • Bohemond - old enemy of the Byzantines.
  • Wanted to make an agreement about conquered lands.

Solution:

  • Quarter troops outside the city in suburbs.
  • Lavish rich gifts on leaders.
  • Receive them at court.
  • Ask them to swear an oath.
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The First Crusade in Constantinople (2)

The Oath - allegiance and fealty:

  • Return captured lands to Byzantium that had previously belonged to them.
  • Obey Alexius as overlord.

Crusader response:

  • Not all agreed.
  • Godfrey did, Hugh of Vermandois + Robert of Normandy also agreed.
  • Bohemond did as he was determined to make a good impression.
  • Raymond was the most stubborn.
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The First Crusade in Constantinople (3)

Raymond's refusal:

  • Claimed the oath of fealty wasn't compatible with his crusading vow to serve God (and probably didn't want to lose face in his demand to be crusade leader).
  • Much negotiation (helped by Adhemar) including a threat to withdraw supplies.
  • Took a much less binding oath to maintain Emperor's life + honour.

Oath's effect:

  • Crusade off to an awkward start.
  • Westerners relied on Greeks for supplies + expected full military support.
  • Atmosphere of distrust which increased as the Crusade progressed.
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About Nicaea

  • Captured by the Seljuks in 1081.
  • Capital of Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan.
  • Godfrey + Normans left Constantinople with Nicaea as first objective in April 1097.
  • Famous city as site of some early church councils.
  • Controlled a main route through East.
  • Town contained Seljuk treasure + Kilij Arslan's family (he was away fighting the Danishmends).
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The Siege of Nicaea

  • Siege began May 1097 until June 1097.
  • Kilij Arslan returned but his entrance to the city was blocked.
  • He was defeated in battle 21 May 1097.
  • City could not be taken as it could still get supplies from the lake it sat on.
  • Byzantines joined the force in mid-June.
  • Alexius setn ships overland - blockaded the lake.
  • City soon taken into Byzantine hands.

Consequences of Nicaea:

  • Alexius wouldn't let crusaders into Nicaea to plunder at it was now Byzantine territory.
  • Rich presents given but Crusaders were disappointed and trust declined further.

The Crusaders left Nicaea on 26 June in 2 sections:

  • Normans: Bohemond as leader, with Flemings + a Byzantine contingent.
  • Provencals + Lorraines: With troops of Hugh of Vermandois.
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Battle of Dorylaeum: 29 June 1097

  • First section met Kilij Arslan at Dorylaeum.
  • Turks attacked from all sides. Had lighter equipment + greater mobility so kept out of the way of the heavily armoured knights. Poured a continuous rain of arrows.
  • Bohemond held ranks together too tightly for Turks to break them.
  • Turks surprised as second section arrived under Godfrey and Raymond.
  • Adhemar performed a successful outflanking manouevre.
  • Sultan + army fled. Turkish encampment fell to the Crusaders.

Consequences:

  • Sultan was defeated for the time being.
  • The route was open to Anatolia and the East.
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Journey Across Anatolia

Problems:

  • Took 4 months in the heat of summer.
  • Food and water shortage - Turks destroyed countryside in retreat.
  • Crusaders didn't know terrain or trust guides (Byzantines).
  • No clear leader - council of princes slow and not always unanimous in decisions.

The journey:

  • Avoided shorter routes as it took them through central region of Turkish power.
  • Detoured through south-east Anatolia.
  • At Heradea had to fight through combined forces of Dansihmends and Emir of Cappadocia.
  • At Tyana forces split again.
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Indirect Route

  • North-east to Caesarea (main city of Danishmends) then cross a mountain range to Marash.
  • Most took this route.

Advantages:

  • Could expect help from Armenian Christians who had been driven from their homes by Byzantines. Had been forced further south by Turks.
  • Would probably support fellow Christians.

Journey to Antioch:

  • Entered Caesarea at the end of September 1097.
  • Rested at Marash to a welcome from Armenians.
  • Arrived at walls of Antioch - October 1097.
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Direct Route

  • Through Cilician gates (steep narrow pass through mountains) then down to Tarsus, over Armenian range to Syria.
  • Tancred, Baldwin of Boulogne + Baldwin of Bouroq took this route.

Tancred:

  • Raided areas of Cilicia + captured Tarsus + Adana.
  • Had to surrender them to Baldwin's larger forces.

Baldwin of Boulogne:

  • Headed further East towards Edessa.
  • Was made heir to the county by welcoming Armenians but soon sidelined them and set up the first Crusader state by March 1098.
  • It was held for 46 years and was a fertile region so could provide resources to other Crusader States + was good for the economy.
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Edessa

  • Controlled by Christian Armenians who welcomed the Crusaders' support against the Muslims who surrounded them. Baldwin was seen as a liberator.
  • Thoros' (ruler) position was shaky, having once served the Byzantines. Greek Orthodox by religion so unpopular with his people who belonged to the Armenian Church.
  • He invited Baldwin to Edessa hoping to free himself from Turkish overlordship.

Baldwin arrives - February 1098:

  • Only 80 knights.
  • Adopted at Thoros' son - now heir and co-ruler.
  • March 1098: Thoros lynched by a conspiracy (Baldwin may have helped).
  • 10 March 1098: Baldwin became sole ruler of Edessa.

The importance of Edessa:

  • Acted as a north-east buffer protecting the other Crusader States to the south.
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Antioch (1)

Main army reached Antioch, northern Syria, in June 1097.

Strongly defended:

  • Powerful ring of walls.
  • Formidable citadel high above the main settlement.
  • Well provisioned.
  • Mountains + rivers provided a barrier - attackers would have to go through river.
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Antioch (2) - Problems

The siege lasted 8 months through a bitterly cold winter. Endured terrible conditions. Problems included:

  • City too big to blockade effectively so defenders still received supplies.
  • Crusaders ran short of food + were forced to mount increasingly lengthy foraging expeditions.
  • Horses died, cost of food inflated.
  • Cold + rainy - tents + equipment rotted.

Franks explained the problems by thinking they had incurred God's disfavour.

  • Adhemar proclaimed a 3 day fast, banned sex, gambling and swearing in an attempt to pull the expedition together and regain God's support.
  • But the siege dragged on.
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Antioch (3) - A Breakthrough...

  • June 1098 - Bohemond plotted with a renegade Armenian to betray Antioch to the Crusaders.
  • He tried to persuade other leaders to let him keep Antioch if he could help it to fall. Raymond was unhappy at breaking his oath.
  • Military situation worsened - Muslims of Mosul (Iraq) marched to relieve the siege.
  • Bohemond revealed his plan to fellow leaders. In spite of Raymond's objects, they urged him to act.

3 June 1098:

  • A rope was lowered from the walls of Antioch and the Crusaders swarmed in.
  • Terrible massacre and much booty taken but defenders withdrew to the citadel.
  • Only the outer shell of Antioch had been taken.
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Antioch (4) - DISASTER!

  • Morale reached its lowest as Crusaders became besieged - forces from Mosul arrived outside, trapping Crusaders in.
  • Extreme hardship: famine, disease, etc. for 26 days.
  • Desertion - Stephen of Blois.

Stephen of Blois - More damage:

  • On Stephen's retreat across Asia Minor he met Alexius who was coming to the aid of the Crusaders.
  • He convinced him they were doomed so the Greeks turned back.
  • Further consequence: Bohemond claimed the Byzantines had broken their agreement to provide military support, so the oath was now invalid.
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Antioch (5) - A Miracle?

  • A pilgrim claimed to have a vision in which St. Andrew revealed the location of the Holy Lance (which had pierced Christ's side in the crucifixion).
  • St. Andrew promised that whoever carried it in battle would triumph.

14 June 1098:

  • Relic was discovered - religious fervour and morale transformed.
  • Christians faced their enemy with a new determination.

28 June 1098:

  • Franks lined up outside the city and after performing some complex military manoeuvres they forced the Muslims to flee. Seeing no relief, the defenders of the citadel surrendered and Antioch was taken.
  • Bohemond able to establish his principality, breaking his oath.
  • Greeks intended to re-establish their influence in the area so were obviously frustrated and led to poor relations in the future between Antioch and Byzantium.
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Jerusalem (1)

December 1098:

  • Crusaders besieged Ma'arrat an Nu'man.
  • Supplies became a problem again + there were reports of cannibalism.
  • First months of 1099 marked by quarrels between leaders and a pressure from army who wanted to press on to Jerusalem to fulfil their vows to God.

7 June 1099:

  • Franks reached Jerusalem.
  • Controlled by Egyptian Shi'ias.
  • Little progress in early stages of the siege.
  • Spiritual strength renewed by the fact they were so close to their goal.
  • Fast proclaimed for 8 July and barefoot, carrying relics, the bishops + clergy led army to Mount of Olives and begged for God's help.
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Jerusalem (2)

15 July 1099:

  • An attack was prepared and on 15 July Godfrey's men filled the moat and crossed onto the ramparts, entering the city.
  • Jerusalem fell and the accumulated tensions + toil of the march resulted in an appalling massacre of the Muslim + Jewish defenders. Religious fervour and extreme brutality.

Result and consequences:

  • 3 weeks later an Egyptian force was defeated at Ascalon and the success of the First Crusade was assured.
  • The capture of Jerusalem was an amazing achievement and the Crusaders believed they must have been blessed by God.
  • Many Crusaders left for home as heroes.
  • Those remaining had to stabilise their new territories + establish a rule of government.
  • Muslim world was shocked + outraged. People lamented the failure of Muslims to act. Seljuk Sultan had been preoccupied and Islam divided.
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Political and Religious Divisions in the Muslim Wo

Sunni vs. Shia:

  • Sunni Orthodox controlled Asia Minor and the Shi'is ruled Egypt through the Fatamid dynasty.
  • Sunni caliph based in Baghdad, Shi'ia caliph based in Cairo.
  • Bitter rivalry and division - prepared to ally with the Crusaders against one another rather than form a common front against the Christians.
  • Greater Syria a vast war zone fought over by generals + former clients of the Seljuks on one side and Fatamid caliphs on the other.

Ethnic + Religious Diversity:

  • In parts of Syria, immigrant Turkish Sunnis ruled an indigenous Shia population.
  • The Shi'ia Fatamid Caliphate of Egypt, with power in the hands of often non-Arab, Turkish or Armenian viziers, ruled a largely Sunni population.
  • This complexity could make the political situation even more volatile. Crusaders just added one more competing foreign power to the region.
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Political and Religious Divisions in the Muslim Wo

Political Power Vacuum:

  • Political turmoil in Sunni and Shia territory due to mysterious + unexplained deaths of several important leaders.
  • 1094 - year of death of Caliphs + Commanders.
  • 1092 - Powerful Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah died.
  • By 1097-99 - Power vacuum in Asia Minor + northern Syria. Civil war between heirs of Malik Shah for control of his territories.
  • Consequently Crusaders were confronted with a series of small rival lordships more interested in fighting each other than the Crusaders, who they dramatically underestimated.
  • Seljuk Empire more a loose federation of states often controlled by Turkish military commanders and slave mercenaries who owed allegiance to one or another rival Seljuk prince.
  • Almost every town in Syria seemed to have a different ruler.
  • Religious leadership in Baghdad distracted by conflicts close to home + didn't concern themselves with appeals from far off places like Antioch.
  • This power vacuum made the Muslims less effective against the Crusaders as they lacked the leadership to unite them.
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Political and Religious Divisions in the Muslim Wo

Military Precedent:

  • Raiding of territories was normal in Asia Minor - Byzantines regularly launched small raids.
  • Muslims failed to recognise Crusaders an an army of religious colonisation. They viewed it as another Byzantine raid. This made them underestimate the Crusader threat.
  • Muslims used it as an excuse to gain territory - in 1098 when Turks were preoccupied with the First Crusade, Fatamids reoccupied Jerusalem, taken from them in 1071 (demonstrates Muslim disunity + not thinking crusaders were a threat).
  • Precedent of the People's Crusade - Kilij Arslan defeated them easily so underestimated the First Crusade.
  • Kilij left Nicaea to fight the Danishmends (again highlighting disunity + underestimating the Crusader threat).
  • Danishmends: Turkish dynasty from east Anatolia.
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Military Tactics (1) - Crusaders

  • Cautious - inclined to avoid battle to preserve manpower unless it was necessary.

Core of the army was knights:

  • Well protected by chain mail, helmets and shields.
  • Heavily armoured and travelled into battle on heavy warhorses.
  • Most effective tactic was the charge.

Problems with the charge:

  • Necessity for a reasonably fixed target (as it was hard to vary the direction of the charge).
  • Needed relatively flat ground.
  • Timing and close formation were also crucial to the success of a charge.
  • Vital to preserve discipline in the face of Muslim attacks, even after a victorious charge. Arrows stuck in chain mail, horses often main casualties. This slowed down the march of the army.
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Military Tactics (2) - Muslims

  • Cavalry based.
  • Lightly armoured.
  • Highly-skilled archers who would repeatedly ride to within 50-80m of Crusaders, release arrows and retreat.
  • Unfamiliar and threatening tactics to Crusaders.
  • Howled and shouted, fired arrows, moved around rapidly.
  • Tried to provoke Crusaders into breaking ranks and clear the way for an attack by the Muslim heavy cavalry.
  • Defence: Crusaders had to stay in tight formation hoping Muslim armies would come close enough to be hit by a charge.
  • Feigned retreat - lure soldiers to their doom. Fall back, spread out so knights lost formation, then outflank and ambush.
  • Would trap small groups rather than facing large, heavy + more disciplined force.
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Military Tactics (3) - Religious and Medical Men

  • Both had religious men to tend to the warriors' spiritual well being + provide inspiration.
  • Bishops + priests in Frankish forces.
  • Muslim Sufis and experts on the Quran in Muslim armies.
  • People to tend to sick and wounded in both - e.g. Hospitallers for Franks and doctors, surgeons, etc. for Muslims.
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Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St

The 1101 Crusade:

  • Continuation of the First Crusade.
  • Crusaders sent messengers to West urging fellow Christians to join them.
  • Papal letters urged people to join.
  • Motivation: Jerusalem's capture made people believe God was on their side. People went hoping to benefit from the success of the campaign so far.
  • Opportunity for deserters to complete their vows, e.g. Stephen of Blois.
  • 2 armies set off, depleated by Muslim attacks, but reached Jerusalem in spring 1102.
  • Provided large cavalry section at the Battle of Ramla (May 1102).
  • Infantry fought at Jaffa 1102.

1102 Expedition:

  • Didn't achieve much considering size of army (20-30000).
  • Involvement at battles of Ramla & Jaffa made significant contributions to kingdom's survival. Some stayed as settlers.
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Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St

Issues for the Franks:

  • Only held Jerusalem, Bethlehem + Jaffa in 1100 (easy to attack).
  • Christians few in number.
  • Antioch 450km away (far).
  • Bohemond captured by Muslims July 1100.
  • Needed local labour to keep economy & food production going.
  • Seljuk Empire on border - vulnerable position.
  • Great distances - Edessa down to Antioch.

Antioch:

  • Bohemond captured by Muslims in 1100.
  • Released when Baldwin of Edessa paid ransom.
  • Returned August 1103.
  • Bohehomd went to the West to seek support + reinforcements from the Pope & in France + England.
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Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St

Bohemond:

  • Arrived in 1106 to a hero's welcome.
  • Married Constance, daughter of Philip I of France.
  • Established house of Antioch as one of real standing.
  • Contacted Pope Paschal II to raise support.
  • Aimed to invade Byzantium.
  • Spiritual rewards offered - first crusade against Christians.
  • Recruited large army.
  • 1107 - Sailed for Western Greece but was defeated by Byzantines.
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Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St

Consequences of Bohemond's attack:

  • Had to sign the Treaty of Devol in 1108.
  • Bohemond became an imperial vassal.
  • Had to relinquish lands in Cilicia.
  • Held Antioch + Edessa on behalf of the Emperor.
  • Aleppo granted in fief if Christians recaptured it.
  • Forced to accept a Greek Orthodox bishop in Antioch.
  • Some of his army continued to Jerusalem, some settled there.
  • Bohemond returned to Italy and died there in 1112.
  • Tancred (nephew) ruled in Bohemond's absense.
  • Tancred rejected the terms of the Treaty of Devol.
  • Byzantines distracted by problems elsewhere so Antioch ruled free of their influence (for the time being).
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Establishment and Consolidation of the Crusader St

Jerusalem:

  • More stable & effective than Antioch.
  • Took coastal cities - Acre in 1104, Tripoli in 1109, Beirut + Sidon in 1110.
  • Sidon - inhabitants were offered choice of leaving or staying under Frankish rule (local labour such as farmers could be used by Franks).
  • Expanded inland in 1115 with Baldwin I's building of castle Montreal in Transjordan.
  • Controlled region east of River Jordan + Dead Sea, down to Eilat - traders from Damascus to Egypt had to pay taxes to travel through the area.
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Rulers of Jerusalem

  • 1) Godfrey of Bouillon: 1099-1100
  • 2) Baldwin of Boulogne: 1100-1118
  • 3) Baldwin of Bourcq: 1118-1131
  • 4) Count Fulk of Anjou: 1131-1143
  • 5) Melisende: 1143-1152
  • 6) Baldwin III: 1143-1163
  • 7) Amalric: 1163-1174
  • 8) Baldwin IV: 1174-1185
  • 9) Baldwin V: 1185-1186
  • 10) Guy of Lusignan: 1186-1192
  • 11) Conrad of Montferrat: 1192
  • 12) Henry II of Champagne: 1192-1197
  • 13) Isabella I: 1192-1205
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The Early Decades

  • 1097 - late 1144 was in general a successful time for the Franks.
  • Consolidated achievements of First Crusade.
  • Huge energy & effort required to establish Frankish hold on the Holy Land: almost ceaseless campaigning + marches.
  • Only 4 appeals to the West before 1144, compared to 15+ from 1149-1186: emphasises the Franks' strength in this time and the relative weakness of their enemies.
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Muslim-Christian Relations (Early Decades)

  • Continuing political dissent of the northern Syrian Muslims was of particular advantage to the Crusader States.
  • Muslims posed a significant threat, but the fragmented nature of the danger diluted its menace.
  • Franks were strong enough to impose annual payments of tribute from local emirs, e.g. Aleppo.

Settlers in conflict with each other - sought Muslim allies:

  • 1105 - Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin I had Turkish allies in their struggle with each other.
  • 1114 - Roger of Antioch fought alongside Tughtigin of Damascus + Il-Ghazi of Mardin fighting Bursuq, commander of the Sultan of Baghdad's army.

Alliances contradict ideals of the First Crusade but represent the practicalities of divided Muslim & Christian powers. Such deals were nearly always short-lived.

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Baldwin I

  • Successful reign: territory of Jerusalem grew + it became more economically stable.
  • Acre taken in 1104.
  • Tripoli came into being in 1109.
  • Beirut + Sidon taken in 1110.
  • Fought almost annual battles with Egyptians, sometimes Damascenes (but they allied with Franks occasionally or stayed neutral).
  • Constructed Montreal castle in 1115 in Transjordan - valuable increase in revenue as traders from Damascus to Egypt had to pay tax to traverse the area.
  • Held his nobles in close control until the issue of succession.
  • Died in April 1118, and Baldwin II took the throne (Baldwin of Edessa, previously Baldwin of Bourcq).
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Baldwin II

  • Another successful ruler for Jerusalem.
  • Led many military campaigns and supported Antioch after the Battle of the Field of Blood (1119).
  • His reign marks beginnings of jihad and further territorial expansion.
  • Also had problems of succession - 4 daughters.
  • Married eldest to military leader Fulk.
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Battle of the Field of Blood - 1119

  • Frankish expansion around Aleppo provoked deep Muslim anxiety.
  • Il-Ghazi and Tughtigin's forces led an aggressive push to the west.
  • 28 June 1119 - Roger of Antioch's army surrounded near Aleppo and he was killed in battle.
  • Almost all 700 knights and 3000 foot-soldiers were slain or captured.
  • Lot of land lost but death of so many Antiochene nobles caused real criss.
  • Baldwin II marched north + took command of Antioch. Defended Antioch and remarried the widowed to his own men. He preserved it when it was under a moment of extreme pressure.
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Jihad

  • Battle of the Field of Blood (1119) was first time jihad imagery used frequently in age of the Crusades.
  • Tughtigin described as 'protector of those who fight the holy war' in 1122.
  • Balak of Aleppo died fighting Franks in 1124 - portrayed as a martyr.
  • In northern Syria, in conjunction with the Muslims' first real success against the Franks, seeds were being sown for the later propaganda campaigns of Nur ad-Din and Saladin.
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Rulers of Jerusalem

  • 1) Godfrey of Bouillon: 1099-1100
  • 2) Baldwin of Boulogne: 1100-1118
  • 3) Baldwin of Bourcq: 1118-1131
  • 4) Count Fulk of Anjou: 1131-1143
  • 5) Melisende: 1143-1152
  • 6) Baldwin III: 1143-1163
  • 7) Amalric: 1163-1174
  • 8) Baldwin IV: 1174-1185
  • 9) Baldwin V: 1185-1186
  • 10) Guy of Lusignan: 1186-1192
  • 11) Conrad of Montferrat: 1192
  • 12) Henry II of Champagne: 1192-1197
  • 13) Isabella I: 1192-1205
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The Early Decades

  • 1097 - late 1144 was in general a successful time for the Franks.
  • Consolidated achievements of First Crusade.
  • Huge energy & effort required to establish Frankish hold on the Holy Land: almost ceaseless campaigning + marches.
  • Only 4 appeals to the West before 1144, compared to 15+ from 1149-1186: emphasises the Franks' strength in this time and the relative weakness of their enemies.
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Muslim-Christian Relations (Early Decades)

  • Continuing political dissent of the northern Syrian Muslims was of particular advantage to the Crusader States.
  • Muslims posed a significant threat, but the fragmented nature of the danger diluted its menace.
  • Franks were strong enough to impose annual payments of tribute from local emirs, e.g. Aleppo.

Settlers in conflict with each other - sought Muslim allies:

  • 1105 - Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin I had Turkish allies in their struggle with each other.
  • 1114 - Roger of Antioch fought alongside Tughtigin of Damascus + Il-Ghazi of Mardin fighting Bursuq, commander of the Sultan of Baghdad's army.

Alliances contradict ideals of the First Crusade but represent the practicalities of divided Muslim & Christian powers. Such deals were nearly always short-lived.

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Baldwin I (1100 - 1118)

  • Successful reign: territory of Jerusalem grew + it became more economically stable.
  • Acre taken in 1104.
  • Tripoli came into being in 1109.
  • Beirut + Sidon taken in 1110.
  • Fought almost annual battles with Egyptians, sometimes Damascenes (but they allied with Franks occasionally or stayed neutral).
  • Constructed Montreal castle in 1115 in Transjordan - valuable increase in revenue as traders from Damascus to Egypt had to pay tax to traverse the area.
  • Held his nobles in close control until the issue of succession.
  • Died in April 1118, and Baldwin II took the throne (Baldwin of Edessa, previously Baldwin of Bourcq).
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Baldwin II (1118 - 1131)

  • Another successful ruler for Jerusalem.
  • Led many military campaigns and supported Antioch after the Battle of the Field of Blood (1119).
  • His reign marks beginnings of jihad and further territorial expansion.
  • Also had problems of succession - 4 daughters.
  • Married eldest to military leader Fulk.
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Battle of the Field of Blood - 1119

  • Frankish expansion around Aleppo provoked deep Muslim anxiety.
  • Il-Ghazi and Tughtigin's forces led an aggressive push to the west.
  • 28 June 1119 - Roger of Antioch's army surrounded near Aleppo and he was killed in battle.
  • Almost all 700 knights and 3000 foot-soldiers were slain or captured.
  • Lot of land lost but death of so many Antiochene nobles caused real criss.
  • Baldwin II marched north + took command of Antioch. Defended Antioch and remarried the widowed to his own men. He preserved it when it was under a moment of extreme pressure.
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Jihad

  • Battle of the Field of Blood (1119) was first time jihad imagery used frequently in age of the Crusades.
  • Tughtigin described as 'protector of those who fight the holy war' in 1122.
  • Balak of Aleppo died fighting Franks in 1124 - portrayed as a martyr.
  • In northern Syria, in conjunction with the Muslims' first real success against the Franks, seeds were being sown for the later propaganda campaigns of Nur ad-Din and Saladin.
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Baldwin II's Campaigns

  • His reign was characterised by vigorous military endevour.
  • Led 19+ campaigns.
  • 16 months in captivity.
  • Had to ride to Antioch 6 times and was regent from 1119-1126. Had to restore order again in 1130 after death of Bohemond II.
  • October 1124- 5 month siege of Aleppo (only time Crusaders seriously threatened it).
  • Fought and won 2 big battles at A'zaz and Zerdana.
  • Went to Damascus + Ascalon in 1125, and back to Damascus in 1126 with success in all.
  • 1126 - further victories at Rapharia and Egypt.
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1127 - Baldwin II

3 issues in 1127 required Baldwin II to make important choices.

  • 1) Encouraged Hugh of Payns, master of the Templars, to go to the West for papal endorsement for the order + raise money and men for them.
  • 2) Also instructed Hugh to recruit men from Europe for another Crusade to expand Christian territory, especially Damascus. Demonstrates Baldwin's confidence + belief Christians could conquer major Muslim city.
  • People did go on Crusade, though little evidence.
  • 3) Wife dead, had 4 daughters (issue of succession).
  • Melisende married to military leader Fulk, who assisted Hugh in Crusade in 1129 (but achieved little success).
  • First child born in 1130 - Baldwin.
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King Fulk (1131 - 1143)

  • Early years of rule marked by a struggle for supremacy betwen newly arrived Angevins and native Levantine nobles.
  • Franks took action to contain threat from Egyptian Ascalon.
  • Considerable pressure on Antioch from Christians & Muslims.
  • Fulk attempted to bring his own men into positons of influence at the expense of native nobility - generated serious antagonism.
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Problems at Antioch

  • Near civil war caused by actions of Alice, Bohemond II's widow, who wanted to rule in her own right until her infant daughter Constance came of age.
  • Baldwin II (1130), Fulk (1133 + 1135) had to march to Antioch to answer calls from disaffected nobles who wanted Alice to remarry or be replaced.
  • Finally, Raymond of Poitiers married Constance in 1136 to bring some stability.
  • In 1137-38 and 1142-43 John Comnenus and Byzantine army came to Antioch, furious that as overlord he hadn't been involved in choosing Constance's husband + opportunity to influence area missed.
  • He demanded city submitted to him in 1137. Raymond swore homage + acknowledged overlordship.
  • 1138 - Tried to take Shaizar (if succeeded Franks would get that and Byzantines would have Antioch). Didn't get it, but John still wanted Antioch.
  • John left after an anti-Byzantine riot and was distracted by unrest elsewhere.
  • 1142 - John threatens Antioch again.
  • Antiochenes manage to delay a full-scale assault.
  • Good fortune: Byzantines withdrew to Cilicia for winter and John suffered a fatal hunting accident. Threat lifted.
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Edessa Falls - 1144

  • Fulk died in 1143 and the throne passed to their son - Baldwin III but Melisende governed on hos behalf as he had not come of age.
  • She ordered a relief force to Edessa when she heard it had fallen.
  • Undoubtedly played a prominent part in ruling Jerusalem during the remainder of Fulk's reign.
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Melisende and Baldwin III (1)

Melisende's Power:

  • When Baldwin came of age (15) in 1145 she continued to govern.
  • June 1148 - leaders of Second Crusade met both Baldwin and Melisende in the great council at Palmarea that decided to attack Damascus.
  • Was the leading partner, much to Baldwin's displeasure.
  • Overcame her inability to participate in warfare by her formidable political skills + position as carrier of blood-line.
  • Involved in high-level politics for almost 20 years.
  • Strength to hold onto the crown for 7 years after Baldwin III reached maturity - the excuse to remove Melisende could have been brought into play very quickly had there been doubts to her abilities (evidence of her strength as a leader).
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Melisende and Baldwin III (2) - Baldwin Fights Bac

  • Aged 22, Baldwin gathered enough backers (partly due to effective military exploits in northern Syria and the Harran) in 1152 to try and force his mother to step down.
  • Polarised kingdom's nobility - reached point of armed conflict when Baldwin besieged Melisende in citadel of Jerusalem and forced her to surrender her lands and abstain from politics.
  • Melisende continued to exert considerable influence until her death in 1161, but Baldwin III was now in control.
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The Military Orders

This was one of the most important events of Baldwin II's reign. Military orders had a long-lasting impact on the Crusades in the Holy Land, the Crusader states and later Crusades in Europe.

Two main orders:

  • The Templars.
  • The Hospitallers (Knights of St. John).
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The Templars (1)

Who's idea?

  • Apparently Hugh of Payns, a knight from Champagne (France).
  • Order set up in 1119.
  • Significant time: Easter 1119 300 pilgrims massacred near River Jordan and defeat at the Field of Blood in June 1119.

What idea?

  • It would be pleasing to God if a monk's way of life was combined with fighting against heathen - a new knightly ideal.
  • Step forward from Holy War - purpose to defend Holy Land and destroy evil.

What next?

  • 1119 - Hugh + 8 companions swore to Patriarch Gormund (Archbishop of Jerusalem) to be obedient, poor, chaste.
  • Additional vow to offer help & protection on dangerous road from Jaffa to Jerusalem.
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The Templars (2)

What were they known as?

  • Templars: Baldwin II granted them rooms in royal palace called 'Templus Salomnis'.
  • At first they lived there in poverty like an ordinary monk community.

How and why did they develop?

  • Bernard of Clairvaux (one of the best known churchmen in the 12th century + a Cistercian monk) became interested in them.
  • Helped them approve a monastic rule at Council of Troyes in 1128.
  • Patriarch Stephen of Jerusalem added elements in 1130, giving rule its final form.
  • Contained key monastic principles of poverty, chastity, obedience.
  • Also practical information on conduct of knights in battle, appropriate levels of equipment + order hierarchy.
  • Bernard gave Templars international status by writing a rule + a tract praising them.
  • Fulk stayed with them in 1120.
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The Templars (3)

Their costume:

  • From 1130 began to wear a white tunic.
  • Probably modelled on Cistercians, another order that wore white.
  • When Eugenius III was Pope (1145-53) a red cross was added to distinguish the two orders.

How organised?

  • Tightly under direction of a master.
  • 3 classes - knights, sergeant who served them and chaplains.
  • During 12th century they freed themselves from Patriarch's authority.
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The Templars (4)

What privileges?

  • Didn't pay tithes (taxes on churchland).
  • After 1179 tenants did (followed from complaints from bishops at Third Lateran Council).
  • When wanting chaplains consecrated had to approach local bishop - were granted exemption from diocese's authority so didn't have to do this.
  • Bishop couldn't excommunicate them or place interdict on their churches / houses.
  • Made them independent + powerful.
  • Papal support - so virtually untouchable.
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The Templars (5)

Why so valuable?

  • Only authority to have a standing army always ready to fight.
  • Gained many recruits (Bernard's enthusiastic advocacy - contrasted Templar values e.g. inner faith, trust in God, bravery + commitment to those of secular knights.
  • Manpower big problem in East - army helped with that.
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The Templars (6)

The Templars, though useful, also caused a number of problems:

  • Privileged position meant they established a state within a state - rival to King + Church.
  • John of Salisbury felt their knightly + clerical duties were incompatible.
  • Pursued own policies + rights of exemption meant they always threatened to undermine customary structure of authority.
  • Took over castles even though not within feudal system as they couldn't hold anything from anyone. Applied to Templars after 1139, Knights of St. John after 1186 and Teutonic Knights after 1220.
  • In 1153 a group of Templars broke into Muslim Ascalon ahead of Crusaders + refused them entry as they wanted the booty for themselves.
  • Position enhanced by fact they received gifts of land from Western Europe - anyone granting land, money or goods would receive a Papal Indulgence. King of Aragon, Alfonso I, donated his entire kingdom.
  • Developed into a financial organisation of great importance.
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The Templars (7)

Territory where?

  • Given more territory as financial strength grew.
  • First castle: Baghras in Antioch, a strategic region that controlled the Belen Pass, a main route to Syria.
  • Acquired castles at Gaza (1149-50), Safed (before 1168) and Toron (before 1172).
  • Some areas they ruled independently.
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The Hospitallers (1)

Earliest Origins...

  • 1080: Italian merchants founded a Christian hostel in Jerusalem.
  • Near Benedictine monastery of St. Maria Latina in Jerusalem.
  • Dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
  • Originally a community of laymen who left control of the monastery.
  • Remained under Patriarch's control.
  • Godfrey early supporter + pilgrims now entering Jerusalem added to it.

Role...

  • Originally purely charitable - providing Christian care for sick pilgrims.
  • In 1169 number of bed 1000.
  • This could be increased in crisis as Hospitallers would give up their beds.
  • All admitted except lepers, regardless of origin, sex or status.
  • Possibly higher quality care than in the West.
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The Hospitallers (2)

Additional Responsibility...

  • 1136 - accepted responsibility for land settlement + frontier defence.
  • Received the castle + territory of Beth Gibelin near Ascalon (granted by Fulk).
  • From 1140s a wave of take-overs in Tripoli: 1144 - control of fortress at Krak des Chevaliers.
  • At first paid knights, who had to protect pilgrims on roads, carried out military functions (so not Hospitallers).
  • Before 1153 Hospitallers based on Augustinian rule (poverty, chastity and obedience). Recognised by grant of a papal privilege in 1154. No knights in early stages.
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The Hospitallers (3)

Military Capacity:

  • Early as 1168 - promise king of Jerusalem 500 knights + 500 Turcopoles (light cavalry).
  • Gradual development from original charitable function that was completed in 1179 when Pope transferred tasks previously carried out by paid knights to the Hospitallers.
  • Became an exclusively knightly order to war against infidel.
  • Played major role in political divisions in 1180s.

Wore:

  • Not settled until 1259.
  • Red tunic with a while 8 pointed cross.
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Bitter Rivals... and Other Orders

  • Templars and Hospitallers became bitter rivals.
  • Other orders e.g. St. Lazarus (enabled knights that had leprosy to war against infidel) existed in 1142.
  • Also Order of Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem, founded in Acre in 12th century.
  • Hospitallers likely developed militarily encouraged by the Templars' developments.
  • Both were controversial and a major influence on divisions in 1180s.
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Outremer: 1130s & 1140s - Lack of Stability! (1)

Fulk:

  • Succeeded Baldwin II in August 1131.
  • Early years of rule saw a struggle between newly arrived nobles from Anjou (where Fulk came from) and the native nobles of the Levant.
  • Jerusalem also had to contain a threat from Muslim controlled territories such as Ascalon.

Antioch:

  • State of near civil war caused by the actions of Alice, widow of Bohemond II of Antioch.
  • Alice wanted to rule in her own right at least until their infant daughter Constance came of age.
  • No less than 3 occasions first Baldwin II (in 1130) then Fulk (1133 & 1135) had to answer calls from disaffected nobles who wanted Alice to marry again or be forced from power.
  • Raymon of Poitiers married Constance in 1136 to bring some stability to the situation.
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Outremer: 1130s & 1140s - Lack of Stability! (2)

Byzantines:

  • Raymond had to contend with John Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor, from 1137-1138 and 1142-1143. Reflects lack of unity between Byzantines + Franks.
  • Emperor angry that he as overlord of Antioch hadn't been involved in choosing Constance's husband - missed opportunity for Byzantium to gain influence in the area.
  • 1137 - John arrived at Antioch and compelled Raymond to swear homage to him and acknowledge him as overlord (claimed ancient rights to Antioch existing before the First Crusade).
  • They agreed that if Franks + Byzantines regained Aleppo + Shaizar then Byzantines would have Antioch and Franks would have other 2 instead.
  • Failed to conquer them but John tried to compel Raymond to hand back Antioch anyway. Anti-Byzantine revolt broke out forcing John to leave.
  • 1142 - John returned, but died in a hunting accident before the full-scale assault that he'd planned.
  • This meant Antioch was occupied with its own concerns as Zengi threatened Outremer.
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Zengi's Rise (1)

During the 1130s, Zengi (atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo) became the most powerful challenger yet  to the Christians. Ruthless personality who inflicted terror and cruelty, both on his own army and his enemies. Feared.

Building up Power:

  • Zengi spent many years building up power in the Muslim world + raiding Frankish lands.
  • 1127 - Ruler of Aleppo, 1128 - Ruler of Mosul.
  • Preached jihad against Franks from 1127.
  • Appointed by Caliph of Baghdad.
  • Chief objective was Muslim state of Damascus.
  • Unsuccessful in attempts to conquer Damascus in 1130 and 1135.
  • Caught up in long-lasting succession dispute in Iraq, which followed the death of the Sultan, Mahmud, in 1131.
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Zengi's Rise (2)

Damascus:

  • Recovered and began an aggressive policy against Franks, invading Galilee which Fulk found difficult to put down.
  • 3 years later Damascenes launched a campaign against Tripoli, during which the Count of Tripoli died and his son, Raymond II, succeeded him.
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Zengi's Rise (3)

Zengi and Damascus:

  • Events not to his liking so he moved from Iraq to Syria to deal with Damascus.
  • 1137 - besieged Homs (city under control of Muslim ruler of Damascus) until a Frankish army under Fulk approached.
  • Zengi attacked them at the castle of Montferrand in Tripoli territory where he besieged them until July 1137. Raymond of Tripoli taken prisoner here.
  • Truce - Franks surrendered the castle to Zengi, unaware that a relieving army from Jerusalem, Antioch + Edessa was on the way.
  • Zengi was very aware that an army of Byzantines under John was approaching.
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Zengi's Rise (4)

Returning to Damascus:

  • Zengi returned in 1139 to deal with Damasucs, who made an alliance with Jerusalem against him. The citizens feared his brutality + saw that the alliance would relieve Frankish pressure on their agricultural lands at Hauran.
  • 1140 - Damascus helped Franks recapture Banyas, a strategic town that cntrolled road between Galilee and Damascus.
  • If Zengi held the town he would have been able to threaten both Jerusalem + Damascus.
  • As a consequence of the alliance Zengi was forced to retreated + for the next 5 years he was busy in Iraq.
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Fall of Edessa - 1144

A Poor Defence:

  • In December 1144 Zengi invaded Edessa.
  • Byzantine Emperor was dead.
  • Neither Melisende or Baldwin III in a position to intervene with affairs of north Syria.
  • City was inadequately defended. Archbishop Hugh was the only one that defended; short of money.
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Fall of Edessa - 1144 (2)

Zengi's Victory:

  • Besieged Edessa, moving fast before other Crusaders could come to aid.
  • Set up a close blockade + dug a complex series of mines to bring down one of the walls. Built wooden towers, dug tunnels + bombarded walls until they collapsed.
  • This allowed him to enter the city which fell on 24 December 1144. 15000 people were slaughtered, including Hugh.
  • Town sacked, churches + monasteries destroyed.
    Ruler Joscelin II fled to Turbessel.
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Fall of Edessa - 1144 (3)

Celebration and Jihad:

  • Zengi was celebrated in Muslim poetry, which depicted him as a mujahid (holy fighter) and for the first time jihad became an active force to push towards the ultimate reconquest of Jerusalem.
  • His achievement was rewarded by the Sunni Caliph of Baghdad, with a string of titles, 'The adornment of Islam, the King helped by God, the helper of the believers.'
  • This was despite the fact that Zengi had few associations with men of religion.
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Fall of Edessa - 1144 (4)

Frankish Disaster:

  • This was a disaster for Franks - greatest setback they had faced since they conquered Jerusalem.
  • Muslim forces followed up their success to take much of the country east of the River Euphrates.
  • The Edessans sent messengers to Antioch and Jerusalem pleading for help, and this, in turn, resulted in the appeals to Europe that prompted the Second Crusade.
  • City fell mainly due to remote situation + speed of Zengi's attack, but also a lack of support from Byzantines and divided Franks was significant.
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Preaching the Second Crusade

Two key figures in the religious call to arms before the Second Crusade:

  • Pope Eugenius III
  • Bernard of Clairvaux

Both made a contribution to the recruitment of the crusade in defence of Outremer.

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Pope Eugenius III

  • Issued the Papal Bull calling for Crusade on 1 December 1145 in response to the settlers' requests for help following the fall of Edessa on 24 December 1144.
  • First bull that has survived calling for a crusade to the Holy Land. Document was clear evidence of Papacy regaining command of Crusading movement. Reinforced the fact that Pope was head of Christendom politically + spiritually.
  • Formed basis of crusading appeals in future. Set down in writing indulgences, remission of sins + conditions of service on Crusade.
  • Addressed to King Louis VII of France. Intended to be read out at great assembles of King + nobles when they gathered to take the cross.
  • Vezelay Easter Sunday (31 March 1146) - Theatrically organised and coincided with major festivals. Came prepared to be stirred into religious frenzy by preachers, e.g. Bernard.
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What did the Papal Bull Say?

It was known as the Quantum Praedecessores from its starting words, designed to appeal to as wide an audience as possible.

Key themes:

  • Drawing a historical link between current pope and Urban, emphasising legitimacy of the Crusade (Urban mentioned 3 times - repetition).
  • Linking new Crusade with divenly inspired success of First Crusade.
  • Sacrifice of those who lost lives in service of God - referring to fathers & sons (strong theological background + appeal to bravery of next generation of crusaders). Links past and present - efforts of fatehrs on First Crusade wated if sons didn't answer this call to Crusade.
  • Fight against infidel + Muslim outrages commited against Christians in the East.
  • Defence of the Eastern Church.
  • Privileges available - remission of punishment for sins, legal protection for families + property, interest on debts suspended.
  • Necessity for morally upright behaviour and the seeking of divine, not secular, rewards.
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Similarities to the First Crusade Preaching

  • Privileges: Remission of sins + legal protection.
  • Fighting the Infidel.
  • Propaganda: Muslim atrocities in the East. Threat to Christianity presented as very grave.
  • Dramatic Speeches: Urban II's at Clermont and Bernard's charismatic preaching.
  • Servicing God: Fighting for God and Christianity. Idea of Holy war.
  • Anti-Semitic Preaching: Rogue preaching against Jews resulting in Jewish massacres.
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Differences to the First Crusade Preaching

  • Fathers and Sons: Second Crusade talks about bravery of Fathers in First Crusade + the responsibility of the sons to continue with it - Fathers' work for nothing if sons didn't help.
  • References to First Crusade: Second Crusade made many references to the divinely inspired success of the First Crusade, linking past with present.
  • Urban II: Mentioned at least 3 times in Eugenius' Papal Bull.
  • Preaching by Bernard: The Crusade was preached by an abbot rather than the pop himself. Urban preached the First Crusade.
  • Objective: First - armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Second - a military expedition with a strategic objective (Edessa).
  • More tightly controlled: The Second Crusade's preaching was more tightly controlled than the First Crusade in order to try and prevent anti-Semitic preaching and other People's Crusades.
  • Linked with religious festivals: Second Crusade preaching often organised to coincide with religious festivals like Easter on 31 March 1146 at Vezelay (may also have been the case with First Crusade).
  • Other forms of recruitment: Popular songs and visual imagery.
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Fathers and Sons

  • Family tradition - particularly in the military.
  • Links First and Second Crusade: Fathers went on First, sons to go on Second - had to live up to their fathers and the success of the fathers would mean nothing if the sons didn't act.
  • Security for family (reference to privileges).
  • Religious reference - God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Links the idea of sacrifice in Holy War to God's sacrifice (Jesus' death).
  • Bible story 'Mattathias of the Maccabees' shows fathers and sons working together in justified Christian violence (mentioned in the bull).
  • Family much more important and central to people's economic and social lives back then.
  • Inheritance - legal inheritance and the idea of legalities.
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Who was Bernard of Clairvaux?

  • Pope Eugenius delegated responsibility for recruitment to him. he was an abbot - led a monastery.
  • Widely described as 'the greatest orator of the age'.
  • Man of astonishing charisma who achieved amazing results of Eugenius.
  • During the recruitment there was careful control over official preachers and the circulation of official letters.
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Bernard's Preaching

  • Intensive 7 month journey around the Low Countries (North France, Holland, Belgium, etc.) and the Rhineland.
  • Preached about the need for personal salvation and the great opportunity offered by God to a 'lucky generation'.
  • The atmosphere at preaching rallies could become highly charged, with widespread reports of miracles happening.
  • Many thousands are said to have responded to Bernard's appeals.

Why were official preachers carefully controlled?

  • Stop anti-Semitic preaching.
  • Stop unofficial incorrect preaching.
  • Prevent events like the People's Crusade happening again. Avoid the frenzied explosion of religious passion like Peter the Hermit which led to the massacre of 1000s of Jews.
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Anti-Semitic Preaching

  • Once again, unofficial preachers in northern Germany spread messages of hatred against the Jews.
  • Temporarily diverted the attention of Bernard, who objected to the Crusade being preached against Jews - the Bible forbade killing of Jews in case one day they might be converted.
  • The preacher, Ralph (Rudolph), did not the proper authorisation to preach.
  • Killings were not as bad as before the First Crusade.
  • King Conrad was responsible for the anti-Semitic preachers and was supposed to control them + prevent massacres of Jews.
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Other Forms of Recruitment

Popular songs:

  • Thee circulate widely.
  • Musical entertainment very popular (not many alternatives).

Visual imagery:

  • There were crusading windows in churches, such as that at the abbey of Saint Denis in Paris.
  • Provided a visual depiction of the triumph of the First Crusade + Louis VII's involvement in the Second Crusade.
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How Successful was Recruitment?

This was a matter of debate for historians.

  • Papal Bull may have been largely ignored until Louis VII had the idea to embark on an armed pilgrimage (the fact that kings went attracted nobles).
  • Despite this, large armies were recruited, with King Conrad of Germany and Louis VII of France leading the main forces.
  • Included nobles like Count of Flanders, Count of Nevers and the future Count of Champagne, plus papal legates.
  • Through spring 1147 the main armies prepared to set out and in May + June they began to march to the East.
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Conrad's Reluctance?

Historians argue whether he was reluctant to go on Crusade.

  • Conrad was an experienced Crusader + had visited the Holy Land 1123-4.
  • Traditional view: Conrad was reluctant + Bernard talked him into joining the crusade - Bernard had sorted out Conrad's problems in Germany so he should go on Crusade in return.
  • Phillips disagrees: Bernard's actions in resolving crises in northern Germany during recruitment played a large part in persuading him to join - Bernard had hoped getting him involved would avoid anti-Semitic massacres.
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The Armies & Their Motivations

The Armies:

  • Louis VII's and Conrad's armies were joined in the East by contingents from Southern France + Northern Italy who had sailed to the Holy Land rather than travelling overland, and by a group of north European crusaders who sailed around the Iberian peninsula via Lisbon.

Motivations:

  • Privileges (legal + spiritual).
  • Living up to their fathers' reputations (family traditions).
  • Remission of sins (indulgences).
  • Religious - fighting for God and defending the Church against the infidel.
  • Regain Christian territory (Edessa).
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Potential Problems in 1147

  • Over-confidence after the success of the First Crusade.
  • Possible reluctance of Conrad.
  • Poor relations with Byzantines - Sicilian enemies, Manuel didn't welcome Crusade.
  • Germans were enemies of Sicilians - divisions within armies.
  • Fragmented army - different national groups coming different ways (e.g. sailing, overland) so might not consolidate well + hard to organise.
  • Goal of Edessa not as potent as that of Jerusalem.
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Preparations for the Second Crusade (1)

  • French Crusaders had to raise money + men as well as resolving diplomatic issues.
  • Diplomatic - Route they would take to the East.
  • Offered transport by sea by King Roger II of Sicily but were unable to accept as Germans were enemies of the Sicilians, as were the Byzantines.
  • Followed route of First Crusade - thought it would bring good fortune.
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Preparations for the Second Crusade (2)

Byzantines:

  • It was important for the Crusaders to be accommodating towards Byzantines as Emperor Manuel did not welcome the crusade as Alexius had done.
  • Manuel had not invited the crusaders to his lands + he was worried about the French's relationship with the old enemies of Byzantium - Sicilians.
  • Manuel tried to compel the Pope to guarantee the good behaviour of the Crusaders + to persuade them to swear an oath of fealty to him.
  • He also fortified the walls of Constantinople.
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Preparations for the Second Crusade (3)

Problems with Manuel's Attitude:

  • Didn't want the Crusaders there so wouldn't provide the aid in battle, supplies + guides that Alexius had done. These were valuable in the First Crusade.
  • Could affect the rout the Crusaders took and make their journey more difficult.
  • Affect relations between French + Sicilians due to poor Sicilian-Byzantine relations.
  • Potential enemy if Crusaders behaved badly.
  • Wanted them to move on from Constantinople quickly (rushed, no rest).
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Preparations for the Second Crusade (4)

Final Preparations:

  • Louis held a great public ceremony at the Church of St. Denis on 11 June 1147.
  • In presence of Eugenius Louis prostrated himself at the altar + asked for the Saint's permission to Crusade.
  • He kissed the relics of St. Denis and took the oriflamme (banner of Charlemagne) from the altar and was given the pilgrim's scrip (wallet) by the Pope.
  • Reinforced connection between Saint Denis + French ruling dynasty and confirmed the pope's position as head of the crusading movement.
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Journey to the East - German Army

  • Started before the French and travelled through Hungary to Constantinople.
  • Very undisciplined + engaged in a series of small conflicts with Greek troops.
  • Minor losses in these skirmishes.
  • Hit hard by a flash flood as they neared Constantinople. They lose a substantial amount of men + equipment - a big set back.
  • Conrad and Manuel were related by marriage so relations between them were reasonably cordial - but Manuel still ushered Conrad through his territory as quickly as possible.
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Journey to the East - French Army (1)

  • Better disciplined and a smaller force at this time, but a faction wanted to attack Constantinople itself, because:
    • Small-scale engagements with Greeks.
    • Ill-feeling created by long-standing differences between Catholic + Byzantine Churches.
    • Antagonism due to recent Byzantine invasions of Antioch (ruled by Queen's uncle, Raymond of Poitiers).
    • Existence of a treaty between Greeks & Muslim Seljuk Turks made the French suspicious.
  • Manuel was also worried by the Crusaders' presence despite Louis rejecting the plot to attack Constantinople.
  • Sicily had recently invaded Corfu + Peloponnesian peninsula (belonging to Byzantium).
  • He tempted the French to cross to Asia Minor with promise of better markets + was relieved when they left Byzantine territory.
  • Odo of Devil (chaplain to Louis) wrote that Louis was heading to Antioch. Conrad seems to confirm this in a letter he wrote in late February 1148.

[Continued overleaf]

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Journey to the East - French Army (2)

  • The Crusade was originally intended to campaign in northern Syria. That would have probably made Manuel less helpful to the Crusaders, afraid they would gain control over more of his territory.
  • Manuel's control over Asia Minor was limited and his allies, Seljuks, could move into Byzantine territory + harass the Crusaders from an early stage of their march.
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The Crusade in Asia Minor - German Army

  • Unknown to the French, the German army had been crushingly defeated a short time into its march across the East.
  • Caused by: Conrad's enthusiasm, poor discipline within the army and possible treachery of the guides.
  • Conrad's army marched into a trap + was wiped out by the Turks.
  • Conrad managed to escape and joined up with the French army, continuing his Crusade.
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The Crusade in Asia Minor - French Army (1)

  • Louis' army marched via Ephesus (Turkey) + along the Meander valley, scoring a clear victory over the Turks in late December 1147. Presence of a white-clad knight seen as an apparent sign of God's hand in their triumph.
  • French coped with range of Turkish tactics of feigning + retreat and attacking quickly, mounting a successful cavalry charge.
  • Evidence that the armies of the Second Crusade were capable of military success, especially when managed properly.

Cadmus Mountains:

  • 7 January 1148 - army became too stretched out when traversing the Cadmus mountains.
  • Vanguard (front) lost contact with the rest of the army and upon seeing the disorganisation the Turks struck.
  • The Crusading army lost substantial numbers of men, horses and materials. This broke the spirit and strength of Louis' Crusading army.
  • The survivors regrouped, ensuring that discipline was maintained in the future.
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The Crusade in Asia Minor - French Army (2)

Templars Given Control:

  • The Templars were given control of the order of the march and they organised the Crusaders into confraternities - temporary associations bound together by oath.
  • This shows how highly the Crusaders were regarded after a relatively short time.
  • The Crusaders recorded several victories on the rest of the journey and reached Antioch with few further losses (evidence of the Templars' superior leadership to that of Louis).
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