The Second Crusade in the East (1)
Antioch - March 1148:
- Louis VII arrived in Antioch in March 1148.
- At first Prince Raymond gave him a warm welcome, hoping to use his close family ties with Queen Eleanor to persuade Louis to fight in northern Syria.
- Louis didn't want to do this and Raymond became hostile.
- Crusader army moved south.
Why didn't Louis fight in northern Syria?
- Rumour that Raymond had become too intimate with Eleanor, so Louis didn't want to help him.
- His forces had been decimated in Asia Minor and he needed to regroup.
- He needed to meet up with other Crusaders who had arrived by sea (at Acre).
- May not have wanted to benefit (even indirectly) the Byzantines, who were overlords of Antioch.
The Second Crusade in the East (2)
June 1148 - Meeting at Palmarea near Acre:
- Conrad, Louis, Melisende, Baldwin II and nobility of Jerusalem debated the Crusaders' next move.
- Military action in Edessa was unlikely without Raymond's cooperation. Also a second Muslim attack in 1146 had further destroyed the city so might not be worth regaining.
- Choice was between Ascalon and Damascus.
- Ascalon: Sole remaining port on the Levantine coast that was still in Muslim hands.
- Damascus: Major Muslim power closest to Jerusalem.
- There had been an alliance between Jerusalem and Damascus, but recently there had been some hostility. The main reason for this was that there was a glowing closeness between the Damascenes and Nur ad-Din of Aleppo - it was in the crusaders' interests to prevent this alliance so they attacked Damascus.
The Second Crusade & Damascus
The Siege of Damascus:
- Reached the city on 4 July 1148.
- After early progress the Christians were force to withdraw after 3 days.
- They moved to other side of Damascus to try and make a breakthrough but found little water + were forced to withdraw.
- After all the hopes, expenses + loss during the Crusade, to fail in such a short time was viewed extremely negatively.
Who was to Blame?
- Conrad thought settlers had been paid off by Damascenes.
- Some blamed Raymond's meddling.
- Templars + Hospitallers blamed (divided people).
- Odo blamed Greek treachery but his chronicle stopped before the siege.
- Odo also referred to problems caused by non-combatants travelling with the Crusade and said that they should not accompany future Crusades.
- Bernard argued Crusaders hadn't travelled with the right intent so God hadn't rewarded then.
Consequences of the Failure of the Second Crusade
- The failure of the Second Crusade was damaging to the settlers and the papacy.
- Widespread reaction against Crusading as a large-scale movement.
- Recriminations for everyone - but no one really understood why there had been so much activity for so little result. But they were sure they didn't want to go to such lengths again.
- Over next 40 years there were no more Crusades and few calls for one.
- The armed pilgrimage had not lost its allure, nor the promise of remission of sins. But now, crusaders went in small bands led by local nobles on their own initiative.
- Over and over, representatives came from Jerusalem to beg for large armies. They got an army from Brabant, a fleet from Pisa, but little more. Nothing coordinated + nothing on the scale needed.
Islamic Response to the Second Crusade
- The Second Crusade had been a disaster for the Franks. Muslim Syria was growing in strength and the western settlers were left with little to combat it.
- Huge boost for the Muslims - consolidating Zengi's conquest of Edessa in 1144 and proved that Christian Europe could be defeated.
- The leaders of the Crusader States were under even greater pressure than before the Second Crusade as Muslim morale increased.
Rise of Nur Ad-Din (1)
Who was he?
- Nur ad-Din (1118-1174) was Zengi's second son, reigning from 1146-1174.
- After Zengi's assassination Nur ad-Din and his elder brother Saif ad-Din Ghazi divided the kingdom ruled by his father into two.
- Nur ad-Din ruled Aleppo and Saif ad-Din ruled Mosul.
- He was a devout Muslim and enemy of the Franks.
- Began his rule by attacking Antioch (weak due to divided leadership) seizing several castles.
- He fought off an attempt by Joscelin II to retake Edessa. He exiled the entire Christian population of the city as punishment for colluding with Joscelin. More merciful as Zengi would've killed them.
- He made alliances with other Muslim leaders in order to strengthen the front against Franks, particularly in Iraq and northern Syria. Making alliances was a notable strength of Nur ad-Din.
Rise of Nur ad-Din (2)
How did he contribute to the defeat of the Second Crusade?
- The ruler of Damascus, Emir Mu'in ad-Din, reluctantly called for help from Nur ad-Din. Damascus didn't want to be ruled by him, wanting to remain independent, but needed help in fighting the Franks.
- Nur ad-Din arrived in time to relieve the siege and cut off the Crusaders' route to their previous position.
- The local Crusader lords refused to carry on with the siege, and the 3 kings had no choice but to abandon the city.
- The entire crusader army retreated back to Jerusalem by 28 July 1148.
- If Nur ad-Din hadn't helped the Damascenes, Christians may have succeeded at Damascus, so had a vital contribution in the failure of the Crusade.
- Had Christians not attacked Damascus, Nur ad-Din may not have allied with them, thus preventing this strong alliance against the Christians (poor decision to attack Damascus by Franks).
The Battle of Inab, June 1149
- In June 1149 Nur ad-Din invaded Antioch, attacking the fortress of Inab. Assisted by Unur of Damascus + had 6000 troops at his disposal.
- Raymond of Antioch allied with ibn-Wafa of the Assassins (Shia Muslims), an enemy of Nur ad-Din.
- Relieved the siege and Nur ad-Din withdrew, but Raymond decided to camp in open country (bad idea - easier for enemy to attack).
- Nur ad-Din attacked when his scouts reported this.
- The army of Antioch, Raymond and ibn-Wafa were killed.
- Much of the territory of Antioch was now open to Nur ad-Din, the most important of which was a route to the Mediterranean.
- Nur ad-Din rode out to the coast + bathed in the sea as a symbol of his conquest. Raymond's head was cut off and sent to the caliph of Baghdad to emphasise Nur ad-Din's achievement.
- The Crusader defeat at Inab was disastrous. Castles at Harim and Afamiya fell to Nur ad-Din. Harim was not recovered until 1157, then lost permanently in 1164.
- Nur ad-Din went on to besiege Antioch itself but was unable to take it (extremely hard city to besiege).
Nur ad-Din & Damascus
- April 1154 - After portraying himself as leader of the jihad + contrasting himself to leaders who had been pro-Western, Nur ad-Din convinced Damascenes to let him take over the city.
- First time since Crusaders' arrival that Aleppo and Damascus were ruled by the same man. This was disastrous to the interests of Jerusalem and the Crusader States.
- Nur ad-Din married the daughter of the previous ruler to align himself with the area more closely + then began to consolidate his power.
- Spent a lot of time after his victory in 1149 fighting fellow Muslims (to get more power + authority), being reprimanded for this by the caliph of Baghdad in 1157.
- Nur ad-Din had to bring together different rival leaders to ensure his position was stable before taking over the Franks. He allied with people or attacked them until they were under his control.
Nur ad-Din & Jihad (1)
- Change in Nur ad-Din's attitude in early 1160s, including greater devotion to Holy War.
- Severely ill in 1157-8, making the pilgrimage to Mecca after his recovery.
- Also suffered a heavy defeat by Franks at al-Buqy'a in 1163.
- These two events seem to have impacted him - focused on jihad with more concentration after 1163. Might have thought he needed to work harder to win God's favour due to misfortune of being ill + defeat.
What is jihad?
- Two elements: purification of one's soul (greater jihad - more important to be a better Muslim yourself than to fight the enemy). Nur ad-Din accomplished this through his personal bearing and association with religious men.
- More worldly fight against the enemy (lesser jihad - less important as to do with the world, not spiritual).
- Nur ad-Din held weekly courts to dispense justice, encouraged teaching + learning, and sponsored the construction of many mosques, madrasas (teaching colleges for religious men) + developed civil amenities - e.g. bathhouses, hospitals, orphanages.
Nur ad-Din & Jihad (2)
- Nur ad-Din developed the propaganda of jihad, placing a great emphasis on the importance of Jerusalem as a place of pilgrimage for Muslims and as a city that should be returned to Muslim control.
- This was propagated to his subjects through poetry, writings + inscriptions. Helped to unite people around his ideology.
- Combined with Nur ad-Din's piety and involvement with the religious, jihad became much more of a political force than at any previous time during the conflict with the Franks.
Holy War and Jihad (1)
- Fighting battles for their faith and God.
- Idea of pilgrimage.
- Spiritual benefits.
- Capturing Jerusalem.
- Preached using poetry, etc.
- Both had particular places devoted to worship and Holy books (Bible, Quran).
- Die for their faith and the justice of their people.
- Propaganda to spread a message about Holy War / jihad - e.g. sermons, songs, papal bulls (Christians), poems, inscriptions (Muslims).
Holy War and Jihad (2)
- Jihad more of a political force whereas holy war tended to be preached by religious leaders rather than secular.
- Jihad Muslim-based, Holy War was Christian.
- Two separate elements of jihad - Holy war isn't that specific.
- Traditions were different: One comes from the origins of Islam (defending itself against attacks), the other from the development of the Christian Church + western violence.
- Doing 'good works' (e.g. building hospitals) wasn't part of Christian holy war (but was part of the religion) however it was part of the greater jihad.
Nur ad-Din, the Franks and Egypt (1)
Nur ad-Din's Rival for Egypt:
- Baldwin III's brother, Amalric, inherited the throne of Jerusalem after Baldwin died age 33.
- Competed for Egypt because of the settlers' ambitions towards Egypt (whose Fatamid dynasty was in decline, suffering defeats to Crusaders in Jerusalem 1099 + Ascalon 1153) and because of Nur ad-Din's ambitions for territorial expansion.
Nur ad-Din, the Franks and Egypt (2)
Consequences of Control:
- If Nur ad-Din controlled Egypt the Franks would be in severe strategic difficulties, facing the same enemy to the south as east for the first time.
- It would cost them money, weaken them defensively + would lose out on trade from Alexandria.
- Egypt was wealthy, fertile and had a busy port (Alexandria). This meant that whoever controlled it would have a considerable advantage over enemy.
- Both sides needed to finance military campaigns and the Franks made many requests to West for financial support. Indicates economic importance of Egypt.
Nur ad-Din, the Franks and Egypt (3)
- Amalric tried 5 times to conquer Egypt between 1163 and 1169, failing each time.
- Nur ad-Din took Egypt in 1169.
- Amalric didn't give up - tried to rally Christians in the face of this increased Muslim power. he made contact with most of the senior rulers of Europe, the Byzantines, Pisans of Italy and Muslim Assassins.
- Further appeals for crusades 1163-5 but main addressee Louis VII wouldn't act due to the failure of the Second Crusade.
- Amalric continued to mount attacks on Egypt, including the fortress of Bilbais (1163-4) but again was unsuccessful.
Nur ad-Din, the Franks and Egypt (4)
Why no success?
- One reason was that Nur ad-Din had attacked the territory of Franks whilst Amalric was in Egypt, taking Harim (important town near Antioch) in 1164.
- Nur ad-Din exploited the King's presence in Egypt to attack Frankish lands. Taking Harim weakened Franks' territorial integrity. Also took Banyas.
- Another disaster hit both sides: enormous earthquake in northern Syria destroyed castles, towns, villages and crops.
- Truce established to enable both sides to recover.
Nur ad-Din, the Franks and Egypt (5)
- Amalric and some of his allies attacked Egypt again in 1167, taking Alexandria in August 1167.
- This was testimony to the military abilities of the Franks + Amalric's determination & resourcefulness.
- He had allied with the Sultan of Egypt but they fell out after Amalric's forces committed a massacre in 1168.
- Shawar was assassinated in 1169, just a month after Amalric retreated from Egypt in the face of one of Nur ad-Din's generals.
Nur ad-Din and Saladin
- Nur ad-Din busy in north + in 1170 had to settle a dispute between his nephews when his brother Qutb ad-Din died.
- After taking Egypt, he believed he had accomplished his goal of uniting Muslim states, but Saladin did not wish to be subject to his authority.
- Saladin didn't participate in invasions led by Nur ad-Din against Jerusalem in 1171 + 1173, hoping that the Crusader states would act as a buffer state between Egypt and Syria.
- Nur ad-Din realised he had created a dangerous opponent in Saladin. The two assembled their armies for what seemed to be the inevitable war.
Nur ad-Din's Death
- When Nur ad-Din was on the verge of invading Egypt in 1174, he was seized by a fever and died aged 59.
- Young son As-Salih Ismali al-Malik became his legitimate heir, Saladin declared himself his vassal, although her eally planned to unify Egypt + Syria under his own rule.
- Married Nur ad-Din's widow, defeated other claimants to throne and took power insyria in 1185, finally realising Nur ad-Din's dream.
- Amalric also died in 1174, with his successor Baldwin IV weakened by leprosy.
- Strong successor leading Muslims, weak successor leading Christians.
Why were the Muslims Victorious?
- 1) Strong Muslim leadership: Nur ad-Din then Saladin (alliances, tactics, exploit weaknesses, etc.).
- 2) Jihad united Muslims against the Franks + provided religious motivation.
- 3) Weakness of Franks - weaker leaders e.g. Baldwin IV with leprosy.
- 4) Failure of the Second Crusade boosted Muslim morale, decreased Crusader morale + resulted in less aid from the West.
- 5) Lack of manpower + resources for the Crusaders.
Why did the Third Crusade Happen?
- 1) Divisions between the nobles of Jerusalem stemming from the reign of Baldwin IV led to their defeat in battle.
- 2) The defeat at the Battle of Hattin on 3 July 1187 to Saladin.
- 3) The Fall of Jerusalem to Saladin, on 2 October 1187.
- 4) The appeal of Pope Gregory VIII in October 1187.
- 5) Preconditions - the doctrine of Holy War and the now long-established crusading 'tradition'.
Divisions Between Nobles of Jerusalem (1)
- Was a leper, but not necessarily a weak ruler.
- 1177 - won a battle against Saladin at Montgisard where the Muslim army was routed + Saladin only just escaped alive.
- Became king on 15 July 1174 at age 13, so a regent was appointed to help him rule.
- Longest lasting regent was Raymond III of Tripoli. He was an intelligent man who had spent a long time in Muslim captivity, so was a relative stranger to Jerusalem politics.
- Raymond was counted as dangerous by Muslim commentators like Ibn Jubayr and as highly able by William tyre, so his was a powerful faction at court.
Divisions Between Nobles of Jerusalem (2)
Raymond and Guy:
- Baldwin's sister Sibylla's marriage caused the greatest division.
- Sibylla was married for the second time to Guy, in 1180.
- Guy was a relative newcomer to the region but his brother was already in the East + he had important connections, e.g. to Henry II of England.
- The settlers wanted to encourage Henry to come on a Crusade + hoped Guy's connections would influence a decision. This opened up a rift with Raymond, who had his own candidate for Sibylla's marriage.
- Guy and Raymond, now two of the most powerful men in the Kingdom, were opposed to each other for most of their lives from this point.
Hawks and Doves:
- Doves (e.g. Raymond) favoured peace with Muslims.
- Hawks (e.g. Guy) were aggressive newcomers.
Divisions Between Nobles of Jerusalem (3)
Hostility towards Guy:
- Although they fought together successfully at La Fabelet in July 1182, opposition to Guy continued and culminated in his removal as regent in October 1183.
- Guy was appointed regent when the King's condition became so bad he could no longer rule - blind + couldn't use hands or feet.
- Saladin prepared to invade and Guy gathered the full military strength of the kingdom to fight him off.
- These forces numbered 1300 cavalry + 15000 infantry.
- No battle, though Christians shadowed Saladin's army for some time.
- Although this could be seen as a success (Saladin withdrew due to shortage of supplies) Guy was criticised for incompetence because the enemy was not engage despite the size of the army, crops were destroyed + an attack on a monastery at Mount Tabor.
Divisions Between Nobles of Jerusalem (4)
Raymond and Guy Continued...
- Baldwin IV's 5 year old nephew was crowned co-king and Raymond as regent in 1184.
- Baldwin became very hostile towards Guy just before his death, narrowly avoiding a civil war.
- Baldwin IV died May 1185, aged 23. He had worked hard throughout his reign + retained the loyalty of his people to the last.
- Raymond assumed regency + concluded a truce with Saladin, however Baldwin V died summer 1186 and Raymond was manoeuvred out of power.
- Sibylla crowned Queen, though nobles were unhappy with Guy as Kin so she was crowned on condition of divorcing Guy.
- She reserved the right to choose her new husband and chose Guy (very unpopular).
- Raymond was furious + attempted to argue that Sibylla's sister should be queen. Raymond and Balian of Ibelin refused to submit to the new king.
- Saladin was gathering his forces, preparing to invade a divided and uncertain Jerusalem.
Saladin's Background (1)
- Saladin was nephew of Shirkuh, an important military commander under Nur ad-Din. Kurdish origin + Sunni faith - a devout Muslim.
- Vizier of Egypt after the death of his uncle Shawar. He later became Sultan of Egypt + ruler of Damascus after the death of Nur ad-Din.
- Saladin campaigned widely in the area, bringing many regions under his control such as Syria.
- Battled the Assassin sect before turning his attention to the Crusaders. Saladin fought Baldwin IV until his death, with Baldwin the victor at Montgisard in 1177 and Saladin at Jacob's Ford in 1179.
- Very generous to his supporters, had strictly administered justice and jihad on his side. This gave him a strong position against the Franks.
- He had fought his fellow Muslims + become leader of the jihad, so had to succeed.
- Further motivation came when Reynald de Chatillon attacked a Muslim caravan heading from Cairo to Damascus in winter 1186-7.
- Reynald killed pilgrims + traders, a clear violation of the truce drawn up in 1180. This gave Saladin a clear cause for war, which he took.
Saladin's Background (2)
- April 1187: Saladin attacked Kerak. The Templars were defeated in May 1187 with only 4 men escaping alive - a force of 430 was facing an army of 7000 Muslims.
- This catastrophically damaged morale - the early losses of 1187 making a huge contribution to the defeat at Hattin.
Lead up to the Battle of Hattin - 3 July 1187
- In May and June 1187 Saladin gathered armies from across his territories - Egypt, Aleppo, the Jazira and Syria.
- Franks assembled their full force at Sapphorie. Mercenaries were hired and castles & cities stripped of their garrisons (making it easier for Saladin to conquer the rest of Jerusalem after the defeat at Hattin).
- Settlers - 1300 knights and 15000 foot.
- Saladin - nearly 20000 men, so a small advantage but not a decisive one.
- Guy was nearly persuaded to shadow Saladin's forces but on 2 July 1187 Reynald de Chatillon and Gerard of Ridefoot (master of the Templars) changed his mind. Both were vigorous opponents of Islam, long-term supporters of Guy + opponents of Raymond.
- 3 July - Order given to march to Tiberias, 30km from Sapphorie + on a road without proper water supplies. This played straight into Saladin's hands.
The Battle of Hattin - 3 July 1187 (1)
- Two armies met on 3 July.
- Mounted archers of Saladin fires, wheeled + turned away, taking a huge toll on Christian infantry.
- Templars, in the rear, came under enormous pressure, preventing Raymond of Triopli from pushing on to Tiberias.
- Christians camped at nightfall, exhausted by the head + dehydrated.
- Muslims, in contrast, could count on supplies on camel back from Lake Tiberias.
- Christians were surrounded but tried to break through to Lake Tiberias, 10km away. Muslims set fire to the grass + brush to dry the Franks' throats and kept up a steady drumming to maintain the tension. Christians broke ranks and scattered.
- Raymond + vanguard charged enemy and succeeded in escaping (rumours Saladin let him go as they were close).
- Remaining Christians fell back to the Horns of Hattin.
The Battle of Hattin - 3 July 1187 (2)
- King Guy's red tent was pitched at summit + his remaining cavalry charged at Saladin's bodyguard in a desperate attempt to swing the battle by killing the Muslim leader. When these attacks failed, the Muslims closed in. Finally the royal tent + True Cross were taken. Battle was over.
- Guy and Reynald were captured, along with many other nobles + members of the military orders.
After the Battle of Hattin - 3 July 1187
- Kingdom of Jerusalem now lay at Saladin's mercy.
- Saladin dealt with his prisoners: Guy, as a fellow ruler, was treated with great courtesy.
- Reynald, after refusing to convert to Islam, was struck by Saladin's scimitar, severing his arm at the shoulder. Saladin's bodyguard then killed him.
- Templars and Hopsitallers were executed - would never convert or pay ransoms.
- Most of the other Frankish prisoners were sold into slavery.
Fall of Jerusalem to Saladin - 2 October 1187 (1)
- Saladin's armies progressed quickly, taking town after town: Tiberias, Nazareth, Acre, Caesarea, Jaffa.
- Some places surrendered immediately, others after brief sieges. Settlers on Frankish farms fled to Tyre on the coast or to the north.
- By September all coastal towns except Tyre had fallen to the Muslins - thanks to the defence of Conrad of Montferrat who had arrived by chance (not hearing of Hattin), leading a firm resistance to the Muslim attack. He succeeded.
- Jerusalem was next. Legend says only 2 knights were left to defend the city.
- Patriarch Heraclius negotiated the resistance, but surrender was inevitable.
- Saladin negotiated the return of Muslim prisoners + accepted ransoms for as many Christians that could afford to pay.
- Of the remainder, young men + women were enslaved, elderly freed. Generous compared to the massacre unde the Franks in 1099. Saladin was going to slaughter them, but Franks threatened to destroy sacred al-Aksa mosque so they negotiated the Christians would be spared for a ransom.
Fall of Jerusalem to Saladin - 2 October 1187 (2)
- No Franks allowed to stay in Jerusalem, but Eastern Christians could if they accepted the status of dhimmi (protected religious community).
- Churches stripped of ornaments + converted into mosques, teaching colleges or convents. Holy Sepulchre was spared, mostly to allow pilgrims to visit for a payment. Saladin repopulated Jerusalem with the descendants of former Muslim inhabitants.
- A few castles held out but were slowly capitulated - Kerak (November 1188), Saphet (December 1188), Belvoir (Jan 1189), Montreal (April 1189) and Beaufort (April 1190). Only Tyre survived - the crucial bridgehead for the early stages of the Third Crusade + the Christian fightback.
- Saladin's army was exhausted and many wanted to return home.
- He was aware of the coming attack from the West - a Sicilian fleet had attacked the coast in summer 1188 - and he needed to rest his men.
- Saladin gained enormous honour - he had crushed the unbelievers, recovered Jerusalem + nearly vanquished the morale & resources of the Franks.
- But another crusade was yet to come...
Pope Gregory VIII's Appeal - October 1187
- He issued the appeal for the Third Crusade in October 1187, known as the 'Audita Tremendi', a call to recapture the Holy City.
- Highly emotive + powerful crusade bull - he described recent events in the Holy Land, including how Saladin had exploited the political infighting of the settlers and his victory at Hattin.
- He lamented the loss of the True Cross + the execution of the Templars & Hospitallers.
- The pope claimed, as Urban II had before him, that all of a man's sins could be washed away by crusade, a task set by God.
- Also followed Bernard of Clairvaux's approach, which also portrayed the crusade as a challenge.
- Usual privileges outlined, as well as the instructions regarding dress.
- This, along with news of the defeats in the East, recruited vast numbers to fight in the Crusade.
Preconditions: Doctrine of Holy War + Tradition of
- This was necessary in providing the motivation, reasoning and procedures for the Crusade - a legitimised form of warfare for God, with discipline, routine + clear ideas to follow.
More on Saladin
- Initially worked for Nur ad-Din.
- Saladin wanted control as a leader.
- The Assassins tried to kill Saladin (a religious Shia sect into drugs + chants).
- Gained Aleppo + Cairo: Circled Crusader States, made them very vulnerable (were surrounded). Strangled Crusaders, moving to a serious confrontation.
- Achieved coalition by being ruthless = sneaky, forced alliances (one opinion of Saladin).
- Others thought of him as fair and pious as a ruler.
Start of the Third Crusade (1189-1192) (1)
START - Conrad of Montferrat and the defence of Tyre:
- Conrad was a well-connected nobleman who arrived before any heard of Saladin's victory.
- Landed at Tyre in August 1187, organised a strong defence.
- Saladin withdrew from his attack on Tyre. Christians maintained a foothold on the coast which could act as a bridgehead for the Crusader armies of the West.
- Guy was in Muslim captivity so Conrad took over the control of the rest of Jerusalem. He received some assistance from the West...
START - Pope Gregory VIII's Audita Tremendi:
- Issued his crusade bull in October 1187, lamenting the loss of the True Cross + the execution of the Templars & Hospitallers, as well as the city of Jerusalem.
- Task set by God + an opportunity to gain rewards.
Start of the Third Crusade (1189-1192) (2)
Assistance from the West:
- From King William II of Sicily (1188).
- Pisa (a fleet in spring 1188).
- England (a fleet in 1190).
Start of the Third Crusade (1189-1192) (2)
Assistance from the West:
- From King William II of Sicily (1188).
- Pisa (a fleet in spring 1188).
- England (a fleet in 1190).
The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa (1190)
- Holy Roman Emperor, leader of Germany.
- Strong leadership and authority, scared Saladin. Would've made serious inroads into the Muslim conquests had he survived the Crusade. Fierce reputation.
- Achieved victory over Turks on 17 May 1190 near Iconium and faced hostile Byzantines.
- Died in the River Silifke in Cilicia - icy water caused a heart attack and he drowned on 10 June 1190.
- Imperial army broke up. Many troops returned home. Others, under the Emperor's son, Frederick of Swabia, joined the siege of Acre.
Richard the Lionheart: Crusade Preparations (1)
- Rulers of England + France slow to act as there was an ongoing conflict between the two ruling families: Angevins (England) + Capetians (France).
- This was not helped by the death of King Henry II in July 1189, Richard's father.
- Richard, who had long had ambitions to go on Crusade, channelled the resources of England towards the Crusade. Paid a lot of attention to the detail of preparing for the Crusade.
- Richard was experienced militarily, having fought in Europe for 20 years. He knew the problems of previous crusades, especially those of finance + non-combatants.
Richard the Lionheart: Crusade Preparations (3)
How did Richard Spend Money?
- Hired or purchased over 100 ships (a lot).
- Their crews were paid for.
- Equipment, food and horses were gathered.
- In 1190 alone, 60000 horseshoes were purchased. 14000 cured pig carcasses were delivered.
Richard the Lionheart: Crusade Preparations (2)
How did Richard Pay for Crusade?
Richard was adequately resourced throughout his Crusade (evidence of good preparation). He achieved this by:
- Henry II had introduced the 'Saladin tithe' to pay for a Crusade - Richard wanted more than this tax as he knew he needed more money than this.
- Roger of Howden said Richard "put up for sale all the land he had, offices, lordships, earldoms, sheriffdoms, castles, towns, lands, everything".
- Heavy payment levied on those who didn't go on Crusade, except for those whose essential administration roles demanded they stay in the West.
- Tax (toilage) imposed on Jews in England.
More Anti-Semitic Massacres
- English were no different - when call to Crusade went out across Britain; propagated by Archbishop Baldwin's preaching tour of Wales in early 1188, papal letters + sermons; anti-Semitic outbursts ignited.
- Jews called killers of Christ - plus they were the group that had the money the Crusaders lacked.
- Horrific massacres - Stratford, King's Lynn. In York the oppressed + scared Jewish community took their own lives rather than be killed by the mob.
- These disturbances were ended by the authorities fairly quickly but once again demonstrated how the call to crusade also called darker forces to the fore.
- He brought together approx. 17000 troops in Sicily in April 1191. This was the first time his whole army had been gathered together in one place.
- Most came from the nobility + their military households, with Welsh archers, churchmen + camp-followers making up the remainder.
- Richard sailed to the Levant in order to exclude the poor + non-combatants, who would not be able to pay for the passage on the ships - and there would be limited space so first priority would go to fighting men. Non-combatants were thought to hold the army back and were partly blamed for the failure of the Second Crusade.
- King Philip of France had prepared more slowly, and gathered about 650 knights, 1300 squires, plus foot-soldiers. he planned to use a Genoese fleet to sail to the Levant.
Aims of the Third Crusade
- Most important: Recapture Jerusalem - Most holy place in Christendom, taken by Saladin in 1187.
- Political: Who would be King of Jerusalem.
- Strategic: The siege of Acre.
Who Would Be King of Jerusalem?
- Both Conrad and the newly released Guy (formerly of Lusignan) wanted to be King of Jerusalem.
- Guy had been released by Saladin in June 1188 and had gone to Tyre in in order to reclaim his authority as anointed king.
- Guy marched to Acre in August 1189 in order to seize the initiative and try and take the city for the Franks.
- This audacity on the part of Guy, whose army dug in so well that Saladin could not dislodge it, won Conrad's respect - he recognised Guy as King in April 1190.
The Siege of Acre Before Richard's Arrival (1)
- Grim experience for both the Franks + the Muslims.
- Lasted from 1189-1191 (very long siege) with bombardments, disease and mud.
- Periods of inactivity where both sides were reported to have mingled. This was the exception rather than the rule however.
- Both sides suffered heavy losses.
- In autumn 1190 Guy's wife, Queen Sibylla, and her daughters died.
- This reopened the issue of succession again, as Guy was king by marriage not inheritance, and in order to succeed this time Conrad abducted Sibylla's sister Isabella.
- He forced an annulment to her marriage and on 24 November 1190 married her. Richard + Philip would have to arbitrate and decide who would be King.
- Saladin made little progress relieving the siege of Acre.
- His earlier successes had been somewhat diminished by the long-lasting siege, and Saladin was clearly concerned about the strength of his coalition.
The Siege of Acre Before Richard's Arrival (2)
- Tried to lead by example to motivate his troops, often becoming ill through the deprivations of the siege.
- Generous to Frankish captives, achieving a reputation for fairness + kindness, e.g. allowed an ageing Franking pilgrim captured at Acre to complete his vows.
Richard's Journey to the East (1)
- Richard departed 4 July 1190 from Vezelay, France.
- Arrived in Sicily 3 September 1190.
- Richard stopped in Sicily to recover a debt owed by the ruler of Sicily, Tancred of Lecce.
- This was owed from the marriage of Richard's sister, Joan, to Tancred's predecessor, William II, who died in 1189.
- Richard wanted the money to add to his crusading war chest.
- He used both diplomacy + force to get it.
Richard's Journey to the East (2)
- Richard also brought with him the sword that was believed to be Excalibur from legends of King Arthur.
- Tancred admired the sword so much Richard offered it to him in exchange for 4 ships. Do not know if Richard was dubious about Excalibur or if he thought ships more important.
- By this point it was winter, the sailing season was over + the Crusaders had to wait until spring to continue their journey to the Holy Land.
Richard's Journey to the East (3)
- Richard set out in April 1191 but a storm blew up near Cyprus, scattering the fleet.
- Some boats were driven ashore, captured by Isaac Comnenus (a renegade member of the Byzantine ruling house + an ally of Saladin).
- Isaac mistreated the prisoners and Richard, in revenge, attacked the island and captured Limassol. Richard married his fiancée Berengaria on the island, before taking the whole of Cyprus by force.
- Demonstrated his strength to Saladin + secured an important future base for expeditions to the Holy Land. Also a place of safety for Franks in the East.
- Richard used it as another source of money.
- He imposed a 50% tax on all possessions and when a puppet government he was aiming to set up failed, he sold the island to the Templars for 100000 bezants (a lot of money).
Richard at Acre, 8 June 1191
- Richard arrived at the siege of Acre on 8 June 1191 to an ecstatic welcome from the Frankish attackers and struck fear into the hearts of the Muslim defenders.
- Philip of France had done little to help with the siege - Richard made an impact relatively quickly (his wealth, numerous siege engines + personal vigour would have had a big effect).
- Franks used these resources to bombard defenders for a month.
- Attack + counter-attack weakened the Muslims and Saladin couldn't break the siege. Acre surrendered 12 July 1191.
- The defenders ransomed themselves for 2000 dinars and the return of 1500 Frankish prisoners + the True Cross.
- One incident marred victory + caused huge problems for Richard - Duke Leopold of Austria tried to fly his banner from the citadel.
- Leopold had been at the siege much longer than Richard but was of a lower standing, so his banner could not be allowed next to theirs.
- Richard's men pulled it down. Leopold, furious, went home.
- He nursed a long and deep grievance against Richard and achieved some measure of satisfaction by taking Richard prisoner on his journey back to England.
Richard and Philip Decide on the Ruler of Jerusale
- On 28 July 1191 Richard + Philip decided that Guy would be declared king for the rest of his lifetime and Conrad would succeed him. Royal revenues would be divided between the two.
- Richard had supported Guy and Philip Conrad.
- Conrad remained dissatisfied. He often refused to work with Richard and made his own negotiations with Saladin.
- Conrad was supported by Duke Henry of Burgundy who took command of the French force when Philip left on 3 August 1191.
- Philip had been very ill and had pressing matters to take care of at home (important political dispute concerning the county of Flanders), but still his quick departure from the East did not improve his reputation.
- He settled for influencing the Crusade from the West.
Massacre at Acre
- Richard's next objective was Jaffa, to the south of Acre.
- When Saladin struggled to pay the ransom for the Muslim prisoners (maybe because terms of surrender had been between Franks + defenders, not Saladin himself), Richard had 3000 prisoners massacred. This brutal treatment shocked his enemy.
- Contrasts with Saladin not slaughtering inhabitants of Jerusalem in October 1187.
- Some think Richard was justified and that Saladin was employing a delaying tactic by not paying the ransom.
- Richard had to feed + guard the prisoners, and if released they would fight him again.
- He also wanted to keep the momentum going generated by the victory at Acre.
- Set out for Jaffa on 22 August 1191.
Battle of Arsuf, 7 September 1191 (1)
- March to Jaffa was hard - incredible heat + endless bombardment from Saladin's forces.
- March required strict discipline so moved in close formation:
Battle of Arsuf, 7 September 1191 (2)
- Fleet: Sailed alongside to keep the army supplied. Remarkable feat of seamanship as the prevailing winds in the south-eastern Mediterranean ran from south to north so the ships had to sail into the wind whilst keeping in relatively close contact with the land force.
- Saladin's army constantly tried to engage the Crusaders in battle by their tactic of feint + retreat and by constantly showering missiles & arrows on them, but Richard still made progress.
- Saladin risked a battle to try and halt the march on 7 September 1191 on the plains of Arsuf.
- Muslims charged time after time but the Crusaders stood firm. They suffered a heavy loss of horses but little else.
- Finally the patience of 2 Hospitaller knights snapped and they charged the enemy, followed by their brother Hospitallers and the French army.
- Richard had forbidden this (knew attack had to be supported otherwise Franks would become divided up and defeated) but revealed his strength as a general by ordering a full charge in support of the breakaway forces.
- This hit Muslims hard and they were beaten back. Saladin retreated from the field.
After Arsuf, 7 September 1191
- Richard was the clear winner at Arsuf, in reputation and in battle. He had shown huge valour, fighting man-to-man on the field.
- Saladin, in reverse, had taken a hit in reputation by being forced to leave the battlefield. He didn't lose many men however.
- Showed the strength of the Crusaders which meant Saladin would have to work hard to hold his forces together in the face of a long campaign against the latest Crusade.
Jaffa, Ascalon and Egypt
- Richard and his army reached Jaffa on 10 September 1191. He decided to rest and refortify the town.
- He personally would rather have marched south and take Ascalon as it was the link between Syria and Egypt. Saladin had just razed it to the ground (demolished it) because he was aware of its importance.
- King's interest in Ascalon reveals his appreciation of wider strategy + the role of Egypt. In October 1191 Richard wrote to Genoese asking for support for a campaign in Egypt in summer 1193, in return for substantial privileges.
- Richard believed that by appropriating Egypt's wealth for the Christians he would be dealing Saladin a fatal blow, but his army didn't share that view.
First March on Jerusalem: Late October 1191
- Bulk of the army were fighting to retake Jerusalem as soon as possible. Their determination meant that Richard had to agree to march on Jerusalem first.
- There was diplomacy (negotiations) happening alongside the strategic considerations of the Crusaders, although this was halted as Jerusalem was crucial to the demands of both Saladin and Richard.
- They began their march in late October 1191.
- Although Jerusalem was only 80km away from Jaffa, march was still 19km away by mid-January (due to mixture of heavy winter rains + Richard's caution). Richard made sure castles along the way were refortified + his supply lines were secure. Determined to leave nothing to chance.
- As the army got closer they realised the city would be very hard to hold after capture - Crusaders would return home after keeping their vows + the resources of the settlers were not sufficient in the face of Saladin.
- Military orders + nobles of Jerusalem emphasised the need to consolidate the coast, and in mid-January they decided to turn back (rather than over-extend fragile Frankish settlements).
- Morale in the army plummeted - masses felt let down by their leaders and many returned to the variety of secular pleasures on offer in Acre.
Succession Problems Again
- Richard refortified Ascalon and then travelled north - the problem of the King of Jerusalem had arisen once more.
- Richard decided Conrad should be king (as majority of Jerusalem's nobility backed him), but he was assassinated in Tyre on 28 April 1192 by 2 Assassins dressed as monks.
- Richard was ultimately blamed for Conrad's death.
- Guy was given Cyprus as consolation to Conrad having the throne. The Templars had been brutal + unpopular rulers there and still owed Richard part of the purchase cost, so were easily parted from it.
- A new king had to be found - a new husband for Isabella.
- Count Henry of Champagne was found, acceptable to all.
- Henry was a nephew to both Philip + Richard and had already spent 2 years in the Levant. He was also from a Crusading family.
- Richard no believed the ascension of Henry meant the forces of Jerusalem were at his disposal so he could go on the offence again - he resumed his Crusade.
The Second March on Jerusalem - May 1192
- Crusaders captured Darum, south of Ascalon, on 22 May 1192.
- A week later Richard received bad news that his brother, John, and Philip were conspiring to take his lands. He decided to stay in the East however and Crusaders made quick progress (pressure to fulfil his duties as leader).
- Richard laid eyes on Jerusalem from a hill nearby. The same problems existed as before, however, and Richard tried to persuade the army to invade Egypt instead so that an assault could happen in the future from a more secure base.
- French would not cooperate, which made a stalemate. Christians withdrew again to the coast.
Saladin Attacks Jaffa - July 1192
- Saladin took this opportunity to launch an attack. Pressure was relieved from Jerusalem so he took the initiative for the first time in months.
- He took all of Jaffa but the citadel + prevented forces of Jerusalem marching to its defence.
- Richard chose to sail from Acre, arriving just in time (1 August 1192) to prevent the defeat + surrender of the remaining Christian forces.
- He personally led a ferocious assault (demonstrating military prowess) on the enemy and fought them off (scattered Muslim forces).
- Next he prevented Ascalon from falling to the Muslims - charged with just 10 mounted knights.
Truce - 2 September 1192
- By this point both sides had been fighting for a long time and had very similar problems.
- Both Richard and Saladin were ill, running low on resources. Richard also had domestic problems to deal with as well.
- On 2 September they signed a 3 year truce.
- Christians would keep the coastline from Jaffa to Tyre but had to hand back Ascalon.
- Christian pilgrims were allowed to enter Jerusalem, although Richard never did go as it would mean acknowledging his lack of success + the Muslims' capture of Jerusalem.
- Richard sailed from Acre on 9 October 1192, clearly meaning to return.
- If he had managed to stay in the Holy Land for a few months longer the balance of power may have changed entirely - Saladin died on 4 March 1193.
How Successful was the Third Crusade?
- FAILED to achieve the main aim of recapturing Jerusalem, so overall was a failure.
- MIDDLE: Managed to achieve political aim of establishing king of Jerusalem (but took a long time). Siege of Acre was long and gruelling. Crusade ended in a truce, not a victory or a defeat.
- SUCCESS in many battles (e.g. Arsuf 7 September 1191) + Richard regained territory such as Acre in 1191.