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Problems In Russia 1894-1905 The Autocracy
- Size The people of Russia were ruled by one person, the Tsar. The Tsars
- Communications were members of the Romanovs, and were the absolute power in
- Weak Agriculture Russia. The fundamental law of the empire was that : `The emperor
- Poor Industry of all the Russias is an autocratic and unlimited monarch. God
- Jews himself ordains that all must bow to his supreme power' .
- Icy north
- Radicals Alexander II was not a supporter of reform simply for its own sake, he
- SDs saw it as a way of lessening opposition to reform.
- National Minorities
- Weak army
- Weak Tsar Nicholas accession to
Alexander II's reign:-
- Russia behind times the throne :
- No defence from west 1894
Konstantin Pobedonostsev
- Millions in starvation Nicholas II's policies
- Peasants
- Poor conditions in cities
- Autocracy
-Chief notfrom
minister modern
- Asks for reform
Pobedonostsev was an arch-conservative who had deep Russification Anti-Semitism
distaste to all forms of liberalism and democracy. Autocracy This was severely enforced upon the
The greatest victims of Russification
was the only possible government to rule Russia. He did not national minorities, by restricting their
were the Jews. 600 new measures were
liberties to conform to all things
think that the Russian people were intelligent enough to Russian. Russian became first language,
govern themselves, for this they had to be directed. everything was in Russian.
AIM- impose Russian values on Heavy Social, Economical and Political
everyone within the nation. effects on the Jews
Supported Pogroms Despised Democracy This meant officials could use
They lived in ghettos, easily identifiable.
discrimination, and could interfere with
their culture, religion and education. Nationalist group `THE BLACK
NASTYYYYYY. HUNDREDS' were notorious for their
attacks on the Jews. The number of
Nicholas Learnt lessons Pogroms grew massively.…read more

Slide 2

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Nicholas' policies- response Sergei Witte's Economy
Russification failed. When
Opposition did not
Russia was developing, they
decrease, the number of turned against half of the Aim- Modernise Russian economy to compete with West
political parties population. 5 million Jews
increased, due to anger alienated by policies, escaped Higher Taxes Large loans and
with their hatred of Tsardom State and interest
at policies investments
and spread the hatred. capitalism rates in Russia from abroad
Impressed by
The period was however, a period of rapid expansion. Russia economy ECONOMY
was becoming a modern industrial nation. Sergei Witte and systems, wanted Protective
Peter Stolypin did great work for the Russian economy, they Russia to Russia on Gold tariffs set up to
Standard- Rouble protect goods
were trying to modernise Russia whilst maintaining Tsardom. produce trade as
worth money
an equal.
Sergei Witte's economy - 2
Sergei Witte's economy - Problems
Trans-Siberian Railway
Railways This was his special project, and it
Much of the foreign capital that lasted from 1891-1902. The line
Witte was raising was invested in stretched nearly 4000 miles from
Railways. He believed
Witte's reforms had massive effects on the Russian economy,
Moscow to Vladivostok. And it was and made it stable. However, there were some problems:-
modernising Russia would run intended to modernise connections
better if they had an effective of goods, like in the west. This
railway system. This was a huge railway proved economic growth,
factor in the increase of railways and was a factor to employment
from 1881 - 1913. TRANSPORT rates, as people could build the line
REVOLUTION. as a job.
Russia too
Too industrial, No attention to
1881 - - - - - - - - - - 13,000 Miles of track dependant on
ignored other agricultural
1891 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20,000 Miles of track foreign loans and
areas needs
1900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33,000 Miles of track
1913 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44,000 Miles of track…read more

Slide 3

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Opponents of Tsardom - Reformers Opponents of Tsardom - Revolutionaries
Constitutional Democrats (KADETS) The Populists
The Octobrists They also came into being around the time of
This group ­ which dated from the Tsar's the 1905 revolution. These were the largest
Populism dated from the 1870s. The The Socialist Revolutionaries
October Manifesto in 1905 ­ were moderate populists regarded the future of Russia
reformers who were still loyal to the Tsar.
of the liberal parties, and they wanted Russia (SRs)
as being in the hands of the peasants,
They believed in the maintenance of the to develop into a constitutional monarchy, in The SR party grew directly out of
who made up the majority of the
Russian Empire, and supported the which the Tsar was restricted by a the populist movement. Their aim
population. They argued the
manifesto and the Dumas as great advances. constitutional assembly. was to widen the concept of the
overthrow of the Tsarist system and
Their leaders, Guchkov and Rodzianko, were the peasants lead the new Russia. The true Russian people. Victor Chernov
both landowners, and both were to become · All-Russian Constituent Assembly was a member of the intelligentsia and
populists were, however, not
prime leaders of the Provisional government · Full equality and civil rights for sought to change the populists' ideas
in 1917. They were restricted in their aims, peasants. They were middle and upper
everyone class. They labelled this as their duty into detailed ones. The SRs were
in their November programme they called · Ending of Censorship to educate the uninformed peasants weakened by the lack of co-operation
for a `peaceful renewal'. The moderateness · Abolition of mortgage repayments
of the Octobrists led to them being into revolution. The `people's will' was and they split between the left and the
on land a terrorist populist group, and they right. They were involved with over
dismissed by the revolutionaries as not
wanting reform at all. This was not true, as · Trade unions and the right to strike were involved in the assassination of 2000 political assassinations, including
they occasionally voiced critisicms of he · Universal Free education Alexander II, but this made them lose Plehve.
Dumas. popularity.
Opponents of Tsardom ­ Revolutionaries The Social Democrats SPLIT
Aimed to achieve
revolution in Russia by Bolsheviks ­ Lenin
Followed ideas that
following ideas of Karl
whole of human Lenin believed that the social Mensheviks ­ Martov
Started in Marx
history had been a Democrats should recruit its Martov believed that the party
1898 class struggle. members by choice. He believed should recruit members from a
that there should be a leader of the wide range of people, and the
party. Lenin claimed that the wider the range of the party the
Bolsheviks were the majority. They better. Every revolutionary
The Social Democrats had the newspaper, the Pravda.
They believed that the stages of
should be a party member.
Revolution should be in different
revolution could be staged into one.
Aimed for revolution Aimed at working class ,
They also believed that the party
should be ran by a tight-knit
stages. Organisation
membership should be open to
all revolutionaries. They
to achieve the win of who had not felt the organisation of professional
revolutionaries. They were to have
believed they should have an
the Proletariat over force of the `great spurt'
no co-op with other parties. They alliance with other bourgeois
the Bourgeoisie. of the 1890s.
wanted to turn workers into parties and liberals.
revolutionaries.…read more

Slide 4

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The Russo-Japanese War - AIMS The Russo-Japanese War - Conflict
Distract Start of War Underestimated strength of Japan
Expansionist Ice Free with Japan ­
Policy in the people from 1904
Japan under Meiji had gone swinging
east Port revolution reforms and had modernised western
Russia loses Port
Arthur ­ Jan Japanese army Japan win
and navy much
Interior Minister Plehve ­ "We Need a successful 1905 more prepared
series of
little war in order to stem the tide of revolution and equipped
than Russian Russians victories
Russian Fleet dead ­
Sunk at 120000
Russia thought that Japan was an inferior nation, and expected an easy
Russians Japanese Major
victory. They Purposely rejected proposals for help from Japan so they Tsushima ­ May dead -
would attack. Kuropatkin said that Russia would only need two soldiers
to every one Japanese for a victory over them.
1905 confused 75000 Defeats
The Russo-Japanese War ­ Defeat and Resolution The 1905 Revolution - Causes
Defeat Makes Tsar sign Russo-Japanese treaty of Portsmouth in
September 1905 ­ Russia withdraw troops and accept Japanese
control of Port Arthur and Korea Famine Weak tsar Behind
Why They Lost Poor
- Military Commanders not Effects At Home conditions Bad laws Autocracy
prepared and did not outdated
organise War
- National Humiliation for Tsar in cities
- Unrest rose rather than fell
- No strategy to getting
- Was a spark in the 1905
supplies to the front
Russo- Weak Violent
- Didn't use Trans-Siberian Japanese War
railway to benefit Army govt…read more

Slide 5

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The 1905 Revolution ­ BLOODY SUNDAY The 1905 Revolution ­ Demonstrations
Kadets, led by Milyukov,
Workers Peasants Middle Class Bloody Sunday causes
widespread outbreak of
Government blamed
for losses and defeat
form `Union Of Unions'
with the aim of forming
disorder. Strikes outbreak all of War, Plehve an alliance that would
over the cities. 400000 assassinated by
9th January 1905 workers strike. Terrorism terrorists. Public
replace the `terrible
menace' in power.
spreads to the countryside. buildings destroyed.
Father Georgi Gapon leads peaceful march on winter palace, where they aim to hand a petition to the Peasants broke into land
Tsar begging him to relieve the conditions. Figes claims 150000 worker. Workers were happy, singing
in countryside, 3000
and carrying icons and crosses. Jews push for rights,
Students, 3000 of them at manors destroyed by
March causes police to Panic, marchers fired on and charged on by Cavalry. 12000 soldiers had Georgians ask for Autonomy,
Moscow university rallied, peasants in anger at
been drafted in to stop the workers reaching the palace. 2 warnings fired into the air. non-Russian minorities try to
burning portraits of the Tsar. government
assert themselves
40 dead, hundreds injured
Army used nearly 3000 At return of Potemkin in
times to break up riots and Troops sent into Odessa,
Father Georgi Gapon cries "There is no God, There is no Tsar" Odessa, Vakulenchuk laid
demonstrations in Russia 2000 people killed by them
to rest.
on `Odessa Steps'
Nicholas claims he did not order attack, he was absent from St. Petersburg
The October Manifesto, 1905 The October Manifesto, 1905
Tsar faced massive opposition Tsar faced massive opposition
Drafted by Witte, was aimed at the liberals to give them concessions Tsar Decreased the mortgage repayments on land towards
to stop them joining the revolution. the peasants. He then abolished the repayments. This made
- Creation of Legislative Duma less land seizures by peasants, and there was less
- Freedom of Speech, assembly and worship
lawlessness in the countryside.
- Political parties can exist
- Trade Unions Legalised.
Liberals Happy Peasants Happy
Unhappy…read more

Slide 6

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Stolypin and Land reform The First Duma 1906
State Council ­ mostly elected by the
De-revolutionising the
The wager on the Strong
peasantry In 1906-1907 he introduced
Mortgage repayments had measures to restore the sense of Elected Lower house, with SDs, SRs and other parties
crippled Peasants, which led to security of the peasants. He
less food being produced, and urged them to fence fields. A
Bi-Cameral system, along with the fundamental laws, meant that the elected duma
`Land Bank' was introduced to
them being disillusioned with provide the peasants with the
had little power to make any real laws, the tsar had to approve the laws, which meant
the government. The no real liberty was produced, and the autocracy remained intact
money necessary. His aim was to
Government under Stolypin make a new, strong and wealthy
bought off the peasants by peasantry that would support the Vyborg Appeal ­ Duma met in mood of bitterness. They voiced anger at limit of their powers. They demanded it be bettered.
announcing the repayments tsar, and grow more food for the Tsar cursed the Duma and blamed it on Witte, and the Duma was dissolved. 200 Labourist deputies assembled at Vyborg,
people in the cities. Finland. They drew up an appeal, where they would refuse to pay taxes and disobey conscription orders in order to defy the
would be cancelled. Tsar. The Martial Law is passed, and the whole population is under military authority.
Second Duma ­ 1907 Third Duma ­ 1907 - 1912
Vyborg appeal meant Kadets lose seats ­ filled by 80 Tsar doesn't want to dissolve assembly altogether:-
SDs and SRs.
Criticisms of the Tsardom
Foreign countries like Britain
New Duma strongly anti-government. The SRs and SDs were now muted thanks to
and France are impressed by
meant large opposition within the party. Stolypin's doctoring of the
the democratic feel about
Duma. He introduced laws
the Dumas and the national
Stolypin willing to work with the assembly, and make that restricted the vote to
some reforms. His land programme opposed strongly. the propertied classes.
Stolypin found the third duma much more co-operative. He could introduce social reforms.
Duma starts to attack the way the imperial army is structured. SDs and
Committee system was introduced to give assembly members chance to put out opinion.
SRs dismissed accused of subversion. Tsar dissolves second Duma.
Protests by representatives. There were almost 3000 bills, one of which was a national insurance system. .…read more

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Kho the Red


You are an absolute legend! I've been making my own revision cards and these will definitely help in insuring that I don't miss out anything important. Than you so much!



Thank you so much, this is so very helpful !!!



Do you have any essay structure tips ??

Daniel Graham


Tiah what I did was split the question into 'INTRO > FOR > AGAINST > CONCLUSION'

Kho the Red


I would just like to thank you for these cards, thanks to you I was able to test myself efficiently and got top marks. You are brilliant. I am guessing you got an A/A* in history. Do you have any tips on how to address Civil Rights 1865-1992 exam questions as they are extremely broad.

(May I also add that the other set of revision cards you have made are just as brilliant as this. I will be recommending them to all my class)

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