History GCSE Revision

Germany & Northern Ireland

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  • Created by: beth
  • Created on: 06-06-12 19:08

Consolidation of Power {1}

Reichstag Fire
Date: 27th February 1993
how Hitler used it to his advantage: The Nazis blamed the Communists for the blaze thus weakening their election campaign
what was 'Protection of the people of the state': it allowed government to suspend many civil rights
Enabling Act
Why? allowed the government to introduce laws without the Reichstag's approval for 4 years
How? needed support of 2/3 of the Reichstag. Since Communists leaders in jail, Hitler only needed support from the Centre Party, to get this he promised to protect the rights of the Catholic church

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Consolidation of Power {1} {continued}

Gleichschaltung

  • April 1933 ~ Jews & Politicial opponents removed from jobs in the civil service & legal profession
  • May 1933 ~ all trade unions outlawed & replaced with DAF
  • July 1993 ~ Germany became a one-party-state
  • January 1934 ~ introduced Law for the Reconstruction of the State. Abolished all of Germany's state governments - except Prussia which was run by Herman Goring
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Consolidation of Power {2}

Ernst Rohm

  • threatened Hitler's position
  • commander of the SA
  • believed Hitlers takeover would lead to a revolution
  • SA would replace the army

Army

  • Rohms plans worried the army
  • Hitler feard the army - the only group that could overthrow him
  • Hitler needed the army - some of its leaders supported him
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Consolidation of Power {2} {continued}

Night of the Long Knives

  • 30th June 1934
  • anyone suspecting of threatening group was killed
  • Rohm, von Schleicher and von Kahr were killed
  • nearly 200 people killed

Fuhrer

  • Hindenburg died on the 2nd August 1934
  • day earlier new law: combing posts of president & chancellor
  • Hitler now president & chancellor
  • Army swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler
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Hitler in Control

Volksgemeinschaft

  • Leading Nazis
  • Provincial Leaders
  • Regional Leaders
  • Cell Leaders
  • Local Leaders
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Propaganda

headed by Dr Joseph Gobbels

  • journalists approved by nazis
  • radios that only broadcast nazi stations
  • editors law
  • nazi publisher
  • propaganda mininstry briefings
  • loud speakers
  • radio stations

Censorship of the press, cinema, theatre, music & literature. In May 1933, 20,000 books were burned symbolically in Berlin.

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Propaganda {continued}

(i) Success

  • helped reinforce existing beliefs
  • germany's culture was damaged

(ii) Failure

  • didnt get people to accept new ideas
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Women

For the Nazi's a woman's role was centred around "Children Church and Cooking".

  • un-married mothers sent to homes were racially pure SS men could impregnate them
  • divorce ending childless marriages easier
  • abortion & contraception made harder
  • women forced from the workplace
  • The Mother's Cross
  • additional welfare benefits & lower tax rates
  • couple - 1000 marks & 25% written off everytime there was a child
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Women {continued}

(i) Success

  • birth rates increased in 1939
  • numbers of professional women went down

(ii) Failure

  • birth rate still lower than in Golden Twenties
  • jobs increased b/c drive for rearmament and autarky took off
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Youth

At School:

  • dismissed Jewish & unreliable teachers
  • teachers joined NSLB (by 1939 97% of teachers were in)
  • importance of History, Geography, Biology & P.E
  • special schools to teach the future leaders; Castles of Order
  • prepared boys for military & girls for motherhood

Free Time:
age 6-10 cubs
age 10-14 Young German Folk Young Girls
age 14-18 Hitler Youth League of German Girls
age 18-21 Faith & Beauty

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Youth {continued}

(i) Success

  • promoted military regime
  • use of propaganda

(ii) Failure

  • quality of education suffered
  • minorty avoided joining the youth movements
  • rebel groups; Edelweiss Pirates & Swing Youth
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Comments

Georgia Loddi-Hill

I don't think the fire was 1993 ...

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