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Humanities
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GCSE!History!Unit!3!!
Exam!Practice!!
Booklet!
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Question!1:!
Inference!
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Page 2

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Making!inferences!from!sources!
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When!you!read!or!look!at!a!source!and!you!understand!its!content,!you!
`comprehend'!that!source.!When!you!make!a!judgement!from!what!the!source!
says!or!shows,!you!are!`making!an!inference'.!!
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Let!us!look!at!a!source!to!see!what!that!means.!
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Source!A:!!
From!a!book!about!the!Jarrow!Crusade,!written!by!a!historian!in!2005.!

The Jarrow Crusade was one of four hunger marches to London in 1936.
They were: the National Hunger March, the Jarrow Crusade, the National
League of the Blind march and the Scottish veterans' march. They passed
through the same towns…

Page 3

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Of!course,!there!is!more!than!one!way!to!answer!this!question.!!
You!might!say:!

Unemployment*must*have*been*a*serious*problem*because*the*source*says*
there*were*four*different*hunger*marches.*It*also*suggests*that*
unemployment*affected'certain'towns'more'than'others*as*the*source*says*
they*passed'through'the'same'towns.*

Or:!

Unemployment*must*have*been*a*serious*problem*because*the*source*says*
there*were*four*different*hunger*marches.*It*also*suggests*that*
unemployment*was*seen*as*a*threat'to'public'order*as*they*were*carefully'
watched'by'the'police

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Of!course,!ideally,!you!would!want!to!put!them!all!together!and!make!a!very!
comprehensive!response!to!the!question!that!would!gain!full!marks:!
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`What!can!you!learn!from!this!source!about!unemployment!in!1936?'!(6)!

Unemployment*must*have*been*a*serious*problem*because*the*source*says*
there*were*four'different'hunger'marches.*That*suggests*people*had*no*
money*for*food*because*they*were*not*working*­*and*the*number*of*marches*
suggests*a*lot*of*unemployment.*In*addition,*it*also*suggests*that*
unemployment*affected*certain*towns*more*than*others*as*the*source*says*
the*various*marches*often*passed'through'the'same'towns.*Finally,*it*also*
suggests*that*unemployment*and*the*unemployed*were*seen*as*a*threat*to*
public*order*as*they*were*carefully'watched'by'the'police.*

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What!else!could!we!infer!from!the!source!that!we!haven't!already!mentioned?!

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Page 4

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Let's!look!seriously!at!the!exam!
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Inference!Questions!will!look!like!this.!

What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about......?!
!

As!we!have!said!before!these!are!known!as!`Inference'!questions!and!the!
examiner!is!asking!you!to!look!beyond!what!the!source!actually!says!to!
what!it!might!be!suggesting!or!`inferring'.!In!addition,!they!want!you!to!
`evidence'!your!inference!from!the!source.!
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Now,!when!you!begin!an!answer!to!Question!1,!it!is!very!important!that!you!
begin!in!the!correct!way.!The!example!given!in!the!previous!page!was!a!
very!confident!response!however!in!the!pressure!of!an!exam!it!is!
sometimes!difficult!to!remain!confident.!!Remember,!we've!been!there!too!!
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One!way!to!keep!yourself!focussed!is!to!practice!starting!your!response!in!a!
way!that!forces!you!to!infer.!The!best!way!to!do!this!is!to!start!your!answer!
with!the!words:!
!
Source'A'suggests'that'....''
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This!will!make!you!concentrate!on!points!that!are!not!explicitly/clearly!
mentioned!in!the!Source!and!will!stop!you!from!simply!retelling!all!the!
information!from!the!Source.!
!
NOW!
Before!you!begin!your!response,!read!the!source!and!pick!out!the!words!
that!the!writer!used!to!put!over!his/her!point!of!view.!Underline!or!circle!
them.!These!words!will!help!you!infer!and!will!form!your!evidence!to!the!
inferences!you!make.!
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When!you!make!an!inference!you!need!to!explain!what!evidence!
demonstrates!this.!This!is!where!the!word!`because'!comes!in.!This!forces!
you!to!explain!yourself.!Try!not!to!copy!whole!chunks!of!text!from!the!
source!­!one!or!two!words!will!demonstrate!your!evidence.!!So!remember:!
! Start!with!`This!source!suggests...'!
! Use!`because'!to!explain!your!point!!
! Don't!copy!out!whole!chunks!of!text!!
! Below!is!an!example.!The!key!points!have!been!underlined.!!


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Page 5

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Study!Source!A.!
What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about!evacuation?!

Source!A:!From!a!government!leaflet,!Evacuation,*Why*and*How?*July!
1938.!
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If!we!are!involved!in!war,!our!big!cities!may!suffer!heavy!attacks!from!the!
air!­!at!any!rate!in!the!early!stages.!Although!our!defences!are!strong!and!
are!rapidly!growing!stronger,!some!bombers!will!undoubtedly!get!through.!
We!must!ensure!that!the!enemy!does!not!achieve!his!main!aims!­!the!
creation!of!anything!like!panic,!or!the!crippling!dislocation!of!everyday!life.!
We!can!save!lives!by!evacuating!children!from!the!more!dangerous!areas!
even!though!this!will!disrupt!family!life.!

My!Response:!
How!have!I!made!these!supported!inferences?!

`Considered!preferable'! `Necessary'!&!`Fear'!
Loss!of!life!will!cause!crippling! Bombers!will!undoubtedly!
dislocation!of!everyday!life!while! get!through!(necessary)!
evacuation!will!save!lives!though! linked!to!avoiding!the!
disrupt!family!life.!The!difference! creation!of!anything!like!
between!`crippling'!and!`disrupt'!are! panic!(fear)!!
quite!evident.!



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Source*A*suggests*that*evacuation*was*considered*necessary*because*of*the*
fear*that*bombers*will*`undoubtedly*get*through'*at*some*point*even*if*not*for*
ever.*It*also*suggests*that*while*evacuation*will*inevitably*mean*the*
temporary*break*up*of*families*and*`family*life',*this*is*considered*preferable*
to*the*likely*loss*of*life*if*children*stayed*in*heavily*populated*areas*such*as*
the*big*cities.*This*loss*of*life*would*permanently*break*up*families,*causing*
`panic'*which*would*inevitably*cause*problems.*
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My!two!inferences!suggest!evacuation!is!both!`necessary'!and!`considered!
preferable'!to!the!alternative.!I!go!on!to!explain!or!support!my!inferences!with!
evidence!from!the!sources.!




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Page 6

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How!is!an!Inference!question!marked?!
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Level! Mark! Descriptor!
0! 0! No!rewardable!material!
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1! 1! Students!do!no!more!than!copy/paraphrase!the!source!
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It!doesn't!matter!if!you!identify!what!the!source!tells!you!in!
several!way,!you!will!only!achieve!1!mark!if!its!simple!copying!
or!paraphrasing!
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2! 2b3! Makes!unsupported!inferences!
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An!inference!is!a!judgement!that!can!be!made!from!studying!
the!source,!but!is!not!directly!stated!by!it.!
· 2!marks!for!one!unsupported!inferences!
· 3!marks!for!two!unsupported!inferences!
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No!more!than!three!marks!can!be!given!to!any!amount!of!
unsupported!inferences.!
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3! 4b6! Makes!supported!inferences!
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A!supported!inference!is!one!which!uses!detail!from!the!source!
to!prove!the!inference.!
· 4!marks!for!one!supported!inferences!
· 5`6!marks!for!two!supported!inferences!(dependent!on!
quality!of!inference)!
· 6!marks!for!three!supported!inferences!
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Page 7

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Now!try!this!one.!
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Practice!1!
Study!Source!A.!
What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about!the!experience!some!children!had!of!
evacuation?!
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HINT:!Don't!just!think!of!the!evacuee!!The!key!words!have!been!highlighted!for!you!but!you!
may!feel!there!are!others.!

Source!A:!Memories!of!Kate!Eggleston,!from!a!book!published!in!1989!
about!evacuation.!
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I!was!at!primary!school!when!war!broke!out.!As!a!small!child!I!can!remember!
the!evacuees!coming.!We!were!horrible!to!them.!It's!one!of!my!most!
shameful!memories,!how!nasty!we!were.!We!didn't!want!them!to!come,!and!
we!all!ganged!up!on!them!in!the!playground.!We!were!all!in!a!big!circle!and!
the!poor!evacuees!were!herded!together!in!the!middle,!and!we!were!glaring!
at!them!and!saying,!`You!made!us!squash!up!in!our!classrooms,!you've!done!
this,!you've!done!that.'!I!can!remember!them!now,!looking!frightened!to!
death.!
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REMEMBER:!Always!try!and!start!with!`This!source!suggests'!!

This*source*suggests

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Page 8

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Now!try!another!example!
Once!again,!this!is!an!example!of!question!1!on!your!Unit!3!paper.!You!do!not!
need!any!own!knowledge!to!answer!this!question!
! Read!the!source!carefully!
! You!must!pick!out!words!that!the!writer!used!to!put!over!his!point!of!view.!
! Then!use!those!words!to!help!write!an!answer!that!explains!what!the!writer!
was!suggesting.!
! Remember,!`because'!and!don't!simply!copy!
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Practice!2!
Study!Source!A.!
What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about!the!experience!some!children!had!of!
evacuation?!

Source!A:!From!a!modern!world!history!textbook,!published!in!1999.!
The!children!who!were!evacuated!had!mixed!experiences.!Some!were!happy,!
helping!on!the!farms!and!eating!better!than!they!had!ever!done.!Others!had!
a!miserable!time.!Some!were!even!seen!as!a!burden!by!their!host!families.!
They!also!missed!their!own!families,!far!away!in!the!cities.!Many!country!
families!were!in!for!a!shock.!They!had!to!deal!with!evacuees!who!wet!the!bed!
and!had!no!experience!of!using!a!knife!and!fork!to!eat.!
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This*source*suggests

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Study!Source!A.!
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Practice!3!
Study!Source!A.!
What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about!the!German!bombing!raid!on!
Coventry,!November!1940?!

Source!A:!From!a!broadcast!on!Berlin!radio,!16!November!1940,!about!
the!air!raid!on!Coventry.!
More!than!500!planes!took!part!in!the!greatest!attack!in!the!history!of!
aerial!warfare.!About!500!tonnes!of!high!explosive!bombs!and!30,000!
incendiary!bombs!were!dropped.!In!a!short!time!all!large!and!small!
factories!were!set!on!fire.!The!German!airforce!struck!a!violent!blow!in!
return!for!the!British!raid!on!Munich!on!the!night!of!8!November.!


This*source*suggests*
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Sometimes!you!may!get!a!poster,!photograph,!graph!or!table!for!question!1.!
The!same!skills!apply.!Circle!or!direct!arrows!to!the!key!elements!of!the!source!
and!write!your!response!in!the!same!way.!

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Practice!4!
Study!Source!A.!
What!can!you!learn!from!Source!A!about!
evacuation?!
!
Source!A:!!A!Government!poster!of!January!
1940.!Hitler!is!shown!talking!to!a!mother!!




This*source*suggests*
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