GCSE History Revision Notes - Britain In 1900

Here are my revision notes on Britain in 1900, which contains the following topics:

Liberal Reforms

Female Suffrage: Suffragettes/Suffragists

Home Front

I hope you find them useful as I did them in a fair amount of detail!

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  • Created by: Bradley
  • Created on: 10-06-12 18:41
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Bradley Cox 11W
History Paper 2 ­ BRITAIN IN 1900
Liberal Reforms
Should Women be given the vote?
For Against
Women have special skills and expertise It is mainly middle class women campaigning
for the vote. They have little interest in
helping ordinary working class people.
Parliaments decisions affect men and Giving respectable women the vote will
women. Women should be able to encourage them to develop their
vote for MP's who pass those laws careers and neglect their family duties.
and influence them on how money is
Women pay taxes just like men. Giving the vote to women will mean giving
the vote to all men ­ including
layabouts and riffraff
There are many single women and widows Women do not fight in wars for their
who bear the same responsibilities as country so they should not be able to
men. have a say in whether the country
goes to war.
Many uneducated working men can vote Women are too emotional to be trusted
whilst well educated `respectable' with the vote.
women can't.
Women have increasing opportunities in Women are pure and should be protected
education and work. The vote should from the grubby world of politics.
come next.
They can help parliament make better laws There are more pressing concerns such as
on issues such as education and Ireland and the Trade Unions.
Suffragists and Suffragettes
Suffragists Campaign and successes
Run by Mrs Millicent Fawcett (Leader of the NUWSS)
Set up in 1897
Ran peaceful protests
Early campaigners
Middle class women

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Bradley Cox 11W
Suffragettes campaign and successes/failures
Run by Emily Pankhurst (Leader of the WSPU)
Set up in 1903
Frustrated with lack of progress from NUWSS and wanted to get votes quicker
She made the campaigns more militant and they disrupted political meetings and
harassed ministers.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
At the time of her death the suffragettes were facing lots of negative criticism but
this helped people to sympathise with them as Emily had died for what she believed in.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
The country was being run by a coalition government which consisted of liberal,
conservative and labour ministers. This meant that they could take joint responsibility
and no one party would be seen as being responsible for giving women the vote.
Did the violent methods of the suffragettes help women to get the vote?
They made female suffrage front page news, bringing it The violence played into the hands of the
to the attention of the public and the government. government.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
It allowed the government to seize any land or buildings it need, and to take over any industries
which were important to the war effort.
The government immediately took control of the COAL INDUSTRY so that the mines could be run
to support the war effort.
The Munitions Crisis
There was a shortage of shells, bullets and armaments on the western front.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
Compulsory rationing of sugar, butter, meat and beer.
Previous methods had proven to be ineffective at reducing food shortages. Every
person had a book of coupons which had to be handed to the shopkeeper when
rationed food was bought.
On the whole rationing was widely welcomed as a fairer system of sharing out
the available food and as a result the health of poorer people improved in
comparison to pre-war days.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
How much support did the war have?
Early in the war the government faced very little opposition.
There was a surge of patriotic feeling.
Only 16,000 out of a possible 8 Million affected by conscription actually
refused to enlist.
Battle of the Somme
Half a million soldiers died for just a few square kilometres of gained
This changed the mood of people in Britain.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
Most work was piece work (paid little for each item they produced)
A lot of work wasn't permanent
Living Conditions
Poisonous gases arising from sewage
Rotten staircases
Filthy passages were swarming with vermin
Intolerable stenches
Damp and mouldy walls and ceilings
Cracks everywhere and rotten windows
There were NO LAWS or legislations for workers or living conditions.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
Outdoor relief ­ When you are given money to work outside of the
workhouses, in your own home.
Indoor relief ­ When you are paid for working inside a workhouse. You may only
be given food and accommodation.…read more

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Bradley Cox 11W
result of low wages, casual work, Death of wage earner: 10%
trade depressions and old age or Illness or old age of wage earner: 5%
illness. He had thought that the Low wages: 22%
poverty rates were exaggerated, Large family: 52%
but he found out they were Other: 6%
Reason for Liberal Welfare Reform
Increase information on poverty
Rowntree was a friend of the leading liberal Mp, David Lloyd George, so he would listen to Rowntree's
opinions.…read more


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