British Depth Study OCR GCSE Revision

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How were civilians affected by the
· When war broke out Britain's army only had 250,000 professional soldiers
­ Government then began a massive recruitment drive with propaganda and
patriotic speeches
­ 500,000 joined in the first month
­ Match 1916 ­ 2.5 million volunteers
· It then became evident that the war wasn't going to end before Christmas
­ January 1916 ­ The government passed the first conscription act for all men
single between 18 and 41
­ Three months later this included married men
· Conscientious Objectors were to take part in non combat service at the
­ Men who refused were imprisoned or taken to labour camps
· Shells, bombs and the threat of invasion
­ Shelling from sea - December 1914 ­ Shelling of Scarborough
­ Zeppelins ­ Bombing raids
­ Gotha and Giant bombers…read more

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How was Britain organized for war?
· DORA (Defense of the Realm Act) - Government can bypass the parliament so they
can take over industries vital to war economy
· The government took control of the coal industry to help for the war effort ­ profits
were fixed and all miners were paid the same
· Shortage of munitions ­ so the government set up the Ministry of Munitions which
was led by DLG controlling munitions factories.
· Railways needed to move troops, this lead the government to take control, like the
mine owners companies received the same profit levels they had in 1913
· DLG was the prime minister in 1916 forming the Ministry of Shipping ­ introducing
the convoy system whereby merchant ships sail together accompanied by battleships
­ to fight against U Boats
· Britain was dependant on foreign foods and due to U-boats - they had a shortage of
9 weeks of wheat and 4 days of sugar
· DLG convinced people to grow crops instead of farming animals (more efficient)
· 1918 he bought 3 million acres of land for wheat production
· Ministry of food was set up
­ Introducing the 9 pence loaf
­ Volunteering rationing ­ Royal family lead the way
­ Compulsory rationing in 1918…read more

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What did women do in the war?
· Industry was short of workers so they employed women
­ Men trade unions had a problem so made women get the same pay as men
· Women's Land Army established to make sure food was produced
· They had to run the home and family too
­ Government set up national kitchens where women could take food home
· Land Lords put their rant up due to the demand from new women workers
so women protested slightly and the government passed the Rent
Restriction Act (same rent as 1913)
· Service men's women got separate allowances depending on their rank
and how many children they had ­ if the man died, women got a pension
· Women began to wear makeup and wear shorter dresses which lead to
more STDs
· The government stopped women giving soldiers STDs by imprisoning
anyone who gave them
· Mothers day was introduced in 1916 to encourage motherhood
· Single women had their own money
· They were to encourage men to volunteer for war
· They should run forms and businesses whilst their men were away…read more

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How effective was the government's
propaganda during the war?
· Propaganda films were created and showing in cinemas mocking
Germans and praising the British ­ most well known movie `battle
of the Somme'
· News correspondents were not allowed at the front line but the
government gave the newspapers summaries
· Early in the war the British didn't report bad news and no
casualties were published until may 1915
· Specific language used to keep morale high (e.g. wastage = death)
· 2-5million copies of 110 different posters were issued for
recruitment at first then later heroism of British troops
· Government created post cards `telling the story' with scenes
from a young soldiers homes telling his parents about the honor
and glory of fighting Britain had only 4 photographers at war
· An artist was appointed in 1916…read more

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What were the arguments for and
against suffrage?
· For · Against
­ It would help tackle other ­ Women have separate spheres
inequalities and women are more suited at
­ It would improve men's sexual home
and moral behavior ­ Most women do not want the
­ Voting should be a right vote
­ Without it; Britain cant be ­ It is dangerous to change a
called a true democracy system that already works
­ Other countries had already ­ Women already had roles in
given them the vote ­ USA, local affairs (poor, law,
New Zealand and even the Isle guardians, charities, school
of man boards)
­ There have been changed in ­ Women were already
women's roles such as women represented by their husbands
going to Uni. ­ Women didn't fight to defend
their country…read more

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Who were the Suffragists?
· They were lead by Millicent Fawcett who linked
many women's organizations to form the NUWSS
· She was the president for over 20 years
· By 1914 they had more than 400 branches all over
the country and over 100,000 members
· They mostly consisted of middle to upper class
· They allowed men in their organization
· Their ultimate aim was for women to gain the
vote using PEACEFUL methods such as petitions…read more

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