Public Health - Section 1 - Names
Anglican Church Army - Philthropists
Salvation Army - Dealt with Poverty
Ebenezer Howard - Garden Cities
Joseph Chamberlain - Mayor of Birmingham 'Run town for people, not for profit'
Titus Salt - Industrialist, Model Town
Octavia Hill - Rented out houses in London to poor
George Peabody - "Peabody Apartments" houses for workers
Charles Dickens - Novelist, made poor P.H aware
Robert Koch - Bacteria man, found bacteria for T.B & Cholera etc
William Farr - Registration of births, deaths and marriages
John Simon - Head of Board of Health, took over from Chadwick. 2nd P.H Act 1875
Joseph Bazalghette - Built London Sewers (Cleared up Thames)
John Snow - Whisky Theory
Edwin Chadwick - Damning report - 1842, 1st P.H Act - 1848
John Kay - Wrote report on state of health, damning - 1852
Aneurin Bevan - Minister of Housing, Minister of Health
William Beveridge - Beveridge Report - 1942
Public Health - Section 2 - Keywords
Clean Party - For the public health acts
Dirty Party - For laissez Faire
Laissez Faire - Government left public alone to deal with problems
Slums, Back to Back, Courts, Jerry Built, Privy, Pump, Rookeries, Cellars, Cesspit, Kennel/Channel, Sewer, Model Town, Quarantine, Torrens Housing Act - single slum, Cross Artisans Dwelling Act - slum areas, Housing Act - start of council housing
Crossing Sweeper - Boy with broom would sweep away dirt + waste for rich
Lighting Boy - Boy paid to follow rich with a lamp
Philanthropy - Charitable
Three Magnets - Best from the Country, City, mixed together
Garden Cities - Countryside / City
Public Health - Section 3 - Important Dates
Local Improvement Act - 1800
Town could make improvements if wanted
Municipal Corporations Act - 1835
Rate payers elected Mayors & Councillers
1st Public Health Act - 1848
2nd Public Health Act - 1875
1837 - Willaim Farr introduces registrations of births, deaths & marriages
1858 - The Great Stink
1832 - John Kay writes report
"Moral & Physical Conditions of the Working Classes"
1842 - Edwin Chadwick write report
"Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population"
1889 - Charles Booth write report
1901 - Seebhom Rowntree writes report that conditions still bad
Public Health - Section 4 - Cholera
1831 - 1832 (32,000 d.)
1848 - 1849 (62,000 d.)
1853 - 1854 (20,000 d.)
1866 - 1867 (14,000 d.)
Cholera epidemics causes:
- 1831 - Waste dumped in thames - water source - to get rid of smell
- 1848 - Worse as water was contaminated with waste
Miasmatic Theory - Believed where there was a bad smell, there was disease.
Contagion Theory - Believed you caught a disease via touch (Contagion - Contagious)
- Though disease was a punishment from God
- Caused by a sudden movement of planets
- Because children misbehaved
- Bad habits like drunkenness
'Cures' for Illness
- Poultices - wrapping mustard up in bread (draw infections out etc)
- Medicines - e.g. Laudanum/Opium
- Purging - used a lancet "pen knife", cut vein, let blood run
- Leeches - sucking away 'diseased' blood
- Quarantine / Get rid of smell
- Shock Treatment (Dunk in hot water, add freezing cold water)
- Painting bodies with tar (to 'fool' cholera)
Medicine + Surgery - Section 1 - Names
E.G. Anderson - First female doctor
C. Barnard - First heart transplant
W. Rathbone - created district/queens nurses
F. Nightingale & M. Seacole
W. Rontgen - The X-Ray
A. Fleming - Penicillin
J. Simpson - Chloroform
H. Davy - Laughing Gas, Dentistry
J. Lister - Sterile Surgery
P. Erlich - Chemotherapy, Salversan 606, Sypholis
R. Koch - Found bacteria for T.B & Cholera
L. Pasteur - Pasteurisation
E. Jenner - Vaccination --- Lady Montaqu - Innoculation
J. Lind & J. Pringle - Navy & Army doctors
John & William Hunter - Set up school, kept body parts to learn with
Monros - Hospital to study/learn
William Harvey - Heart pumps blood
Amboise Pare - Egg yolk to seal wounds instead of boiling oil
Lloyd George - National Insurance Act - 1911
C. Hill - Chairman of BMA (British Medical Association)
Colnol Blimp - Cartoon character
Medicine + Surgery - Section 2 - Keywords
BMA - British Medican Association
Keyhole Surgery - Insert tubes and scopes
Micro Surgery - Insert Cameras, Magnify
Ultra Sounds, Hospital Trusts, Alternative Medicine, Cat Scans, Old Wives Tales, Barber Surgeons, Apothecary, Physician, Bloodletting, Laudunum, Poultice, Lancet, Cutting for Stones, Compound Fracture, Simple Fracture, WHO, Ether, Means Test
Spontaneous Generation - Randomly caught disease
Ressurection Men - Grave Robbers, stole bodys for medicine practice
Poor Law Infirmary - Workhouse hospitals
Municipal - General, Town, Community
Medicine + Surgery - Section 3 - Dates
1796 - Jenner & Vaccinations
1853 - Crimean War
1861 - Pasteur - Germ Theory
1865 - Lister - Carbolic Spray
1911 - National Health Act
1942 - Welfare State, Bev Report
1939 - 1945 - WW2
1946 - NHS Outlined
1948 - 1st NHS Hospital Opened
1980 - Black Report - NHS in trouble
1990 - Hospital Trusts
Medicine + Surgery - Section 4 - Other Stuff
Edward Jenner -
Overhead milkmaid - Sarah Nelmes, said if you suffer from cowpox you don't get smallpox.
14th May 1796 took cowpox puss from milkmaids hands, injected it in 8 year old James Phipps. Waited for side effects to subside, then injected the boy with small pox on July 1st. Boy shoed no signs of the disease.
Florey & Chain -
Read Flemmings paper on penicillin, developed further until in 1940 they discovered how to make large quantities of it.
Tested on patient, eventually ran out and patient died. Managed to get enough money together for 4 companies to make it, used on soldiers first in Africa, then on D-Day 1944
Agriculture - Section 1 - Keywords
Types of Land
- Ploughland - Crops
- Meadow - Feed animals in winter
- Common Land - Grazing
3 Course Crop Rotation
1 field would lie fallow to rest for next years crop, other 2 fields would be growing crops.
Common Crops = Barley, Wheat, Hay.
Divided into Strips, all strips spread out all over farm, each "resident" had strips.
Agriculture - Section 2 - People
Squire = Lived in main house/hall, sectioned off from all others, owned as much as 2000 acres, took rent off the people.
Parson = Next largest landowner i.e church, appointed by squire, educated, kept accounts and parish records, 1/10th of villagers produced money for church, everyone went to church.
Freeholder = Small number of farmers that FULLY owned land, farmed the same as everyone else.
Leasholder = who rented land for a period of time, was negotiated after lease was up, rent would often increas.
Copyholder = paid rent under agreement, often did not have the actual lease, passed down by generations.
Labourer = worked on ladn for others, owned small land, rented cottages.
Squatter = Had ancient right to dquat on land, did odd jobs e.g collect timber and rake up leaves.
Agricultue - Section 3
Textiles Industry - Section 1
The Domestic System
1) Shear the sheep
2) Wash the Wool
3) Carding - Done by Children
4) Spinning - Done by Women
5) Weaving <-> Weft Thread ^ Warp Thread - Done by Men
6) Fulling - Cloth beaten
8) Finishing - Printing, dying etc.