History GCSE Revision

Information for Public Health, Medicine + Surgery, Agriculture, The Textiles Industry.

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  • Created by: Jo Boyce
  • Created on: 25-11-09 19:02

Public Health - Section 1 - Names

Anglican Church Army - Philthropists

Salvation Army - Dealt with Poverty

Ebenezer Howard - Garden Cities

Joseph Chamberlain - Mayor of Birmingham 'Run town for people, not for profit'

Titus Salt - Industrialist, Model Town

Octavia Hill - Rented out houses in London to poor

George Peabody - "Peabody Apartments" houses for workers

Charles Dickens - Novelist, made poor P.H aware

Robert Koch - Bacteria man, found bacteria for T.B & Cholera etc

William Farr - Registration of births, deaths and marriages

John Simon - Head of Board of Health, took over from Chadwick. 2nd P.H Act 1875

Joseph Bazalghette - Built London Sewers (Cleared up Thames)

John Snow - Whisky Theory

Edwin Chadwick - Damning report - 1842, 1st P.H Act - 1848

John Kay - Wrote report on state of health, damning - 1852

Aneurin Bevan - Minister of Housing, Minister of Health

William Beveridge - Beveridge Report - 1942

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Public Health - Section 2 - Keywords

Clean Party - For the public health acts

Dirty Party - For laissez Faire

Laissez Faire - Government left public alone to deal with problems

Slums, Back to Back, Courts, Jerry Built, Privy, Pump, Rookeries, Cellars, Cesspit, Kennel/Channel, Sewer, Model Town, Quarantine, Torrens Housing Act - single slum, Cross Artisans Dwelling Act - slum areas, Housing Act - start of council housing

Crossing Sweeper - Boy with broom would sweep away dirt + waste for rich

Lighting Boy - Boy paid to follow rich with a lamp

Philanthropy - Charitable

Three Magnets - Best from the Country, City, mixed together

Garden Cities - Countryside / City

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Public Health - Section 3 - Important Dates

Acts

Local Improvement Act - 1800

Town could make improvements if wanted

Municipal Corporations Act - 1835

Rate payers elected Mayors & Councillers

1st Public Health Act - 1848

2nd Public Health Act - 1875

Dates

1837 - Willaim Farr introduces registrations of births, deaths & marriages

1858 - The Great Stink

1832 - John Kay writes report

"Moral & Physical Conditions of the Working Classes"

1842 - Edwin Chadwick write report

"Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population"

1889 - Charles Booth write report

1901 - Seebhom Rowntree writes report that conditions still bad

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Public Health - Section 4 - Cholera

Cholera Epidemics-

1831 - 1832 (32,000 d.)

1848 - 1849 (62,000 d.)

1853 - 1854 (20,000 d.)

1866 - 1867 (14,000 d.)

Cholera epidemics causes:

  • 1831 - Waste dumped in thames - water source - to get rid of smell
  • 1848 - Worse as water was contaminated with waste

Miasmatic Theory - Believed where there was a bad smell, there was disease.

Contagion Theory - Believed you caught a disease via touch (Contagion - Contagious)

  • Though disease was a punishment from God
  • Caused by a sudden movement of planets
  • Because children misbehaved
  • Bad habits like drunkenness

'Cures' for Illness

  • Poultices - wrapping mustard up in bread (draw infections out etc)
  • Medicines - e.g. Laudanum/Opium
  • Purging - used a lancet "pen knife", cut vein, let blood run
  • Leeches - sucking away 'diseased' blood
  • Quarantine / Get rid of smell

"Quack Cures"

  • Pray
  • Shock Treatment (Dunk in hot water, add freezing cold water)
  • Painting bodies with tar (to 'fool' cholera)
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Medicine + Surgery - Section 1 - Names

E.G. Anderson - First female doctor

C. Barnard - First heart transplant

W. Rathbone - created district/queens nurses

F. Nightingale & M. Seacole

W. Rontgen - The X-Ray

A. Fleming - Penicillin

J. Simpson - Chloroform

H. Davy - Laughing Gas, Dentistry

J. Lister - Sterile Surgery

P. Erlich - Chemotherapy, Salversan 606, Sypholis

R. Koch - Found bacteria for T.B & Cholera

L. Pasteur - Pasteurisation

E. Jenner - Vaccination --- Lady Montaqu - Innoculation

J. Lind & J. Pringle - Navy & Army doctors

John & William Hunter - Set up school, kept body parts to learn with

Monros - Hospital to study/learn

William Harvey - Heart pumps blood

Amboise Pare - Egg yolk to seal wounds instead of boiling oil

Lloyd George - National Insurance Act - 1911

C. Hill - Chairman of BMA (British Medical Association)

Colnol Blimp - Cartoon character

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Medicine + Surgery - Section 2 - Keywords

BMA - British Medican Association

Keyhole Surgery - Insert tubes and scopes

Micro Surgery - Insert Cameras, Magnify

Ultra Sounds, Hospital Trusts, Alternative Medicine, Cat Scans, Old Wives Tales, Barber Surgeons, Apothecary, Physician, Bloodletting, Laudunum, Poultice, Lancet, Cutting for Stones, Compound Fracture, Simple Fracture, WHO, Ether, Means Test

Spontaneous Generation - Randomly caught disease

Ressurection Men - Grave Robbers, stole bodys for medicine practice

Poor Law Infirmary - Workhouse hospitals

Municipal - General, Town, Community

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Medicine + Surgery - Section 3 - Dates

1796 - Jenner & Vaccinations

1853 - Crimean War

1861 - Pasteur - Germ Theory

1865 - Lister - Carbolic Spray

1911 - National Health Act

1942 - Welfare State, Bev Report

1939 - 1945 - WW2

1946 - NHS Outlined

1948 - 1st NHS Hospital Opened

1980 - Black Report - NHS in trouble

1990 - Hospital Trusts

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Medicine + Surgery - Section 4 - Other Stuff

Edward Jenner -

Overhead milkmaid - Sarah Nelmes, said if you suffer from cowpox you don't get smallpox.

14th May 1796 took cowpox puss from milkmaids hands, injected it in 8 year old James Phipps. Waited for side effects to subside, then injected the boy with small pox on July 1st. Boy shoed no signs of the disease.

Florey & Chain -

Read Flemmings paper on penicillin, developed further until in 1940 they discovered how to make large quantities of it.

Tested on patient, eventually ran out and patient died. Managed to get enough money together for 4 companies to make it, used on soldiers first in Africa, then on D-Day 1944

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Agriculture - Section 1 - Keywords

Types of Land

  • Ploughland - Crops
  • Meadow - Feed animals in winter
  • Common Land - Grazing
  • Wasteland/Woodland
  • Glebeland/Churchland

3 Course Crop Rotation

1 field would lie fallow to rest for next years crop, other 2 fields would be growing crops.

Common Crops = Barley, Wheat, Hay.

Divided into Strips, all strips spread out all over farm, each "resident" had strips.

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Agriculture - Section 2 - People

Squire = Lived in main house/hall, sectioned off from all others, owned as much as 2000 acres, took rent off the people.

Parson = Next largest landowner i.e church, appointed by squire, educated, kept accounts and parish records, 1/10th of villagers produced money for church, everyone went to church.

Freeholder = Small number of farmers that FULLY owned land, farmed the same as everyone else.

Leasholder = who rented land for a period of time, was negotiated after lease was up, rent would often increas.

Copyholder = paid rent under agreement, often did not have the actual lease, passed down by generations.

Labourer = worked on ladn for others, owned small land, rented cottages.

Squatter = Had ancient right to dquat on land, did odd jobs e.g collect timber and rake up leaves.

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Agricultue - Section 3

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Textiles Industry - Section 1

The Domestic System

1) Shear the sheep

2) Wash the Wool

3) Carding - Done by Children

4) Spinning - Done by Women

5) Weaving <-> Weft Thread ^ Warp Thread - Done by Men

6) Fulling - Cloth beaten

7) Cropping

8) Finishing - Printing, dying etc.

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Comments

Emma

Inaccurate, dont copy this! Edward Jenner didnt 'overhear' the milkmaid say about smallpox and cowpox, he studied the milkmaids since he worked near the farm, and when he noticed that they didnt get smallpox, he researched deeper into the cause. :)

keavywynn

This information is correct.

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