Geography- Conflict revision

These cards contain revision for conflict as part of my A2 course.

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Origins of Conflict- Identity

Identity

  • Identity is described as a sense of belonging to a group or geographical area where there is a similar generic character, similairty or distingusihing feature.
  • This may be the ethnicity, langauge and religion.
  • Conflict may arise when a group of people feel there identity is in danger

Scales

  • Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation. Only the interests and culture of that nation is promoted.
  • Regionalism: consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region within that nation. This may lead to the development of a political or social system based on the areas.
  • Localism: an affection for a particular place, often displayed through nimbysim (not in my back yard).

Case study: Northern and Southern Ireland

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Ethnicity

Ethnicity

  • Ethnicity is the grouping of people by there ethnic origin
  • It determines whether the population is causoid, mongoloid, negroid or polynesian.
  • More recently the term now encorparates groups of people under racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic and cultural origins or background

Case Study

  • Kosovo
  • Holocasut- nazi regime
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Culture

Culture

  • Culture is the customary beliefs, social norms and traits of a racial, religious or social group.
  • It is a group of shared attituted, values and practises.
  • The origins of many groups are historical but may be lost in time.
  • Groups of people are proud of their culture and they will try to protect it.
  • Within countries there are many variations of cultures which may enhance the country.

Case Study

  • Arab Israli conflict
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Territory

Territory

  • Territory is a geographic area belonging to or under a governening authority.
  • The territory may be an administrative subdivision of a country, or a geographical area dependent on an external government, but may have some degree of autonomy.
  • Conflict may occur when the authority of an area of land is questioned or changed.

Case studies

  • World War Two
  • Greek cypriets and turkish cypriets
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Ideology

Ideology

  • Ideology is a systematic body of concepts regarding human life or culture.
  • It can result in a set of intergrated assertions, theories and aims that together consitute a sociopolitical programme.
  • Some ideologies can be extreme and at odds with those elsewhere in the world and their supporters may seek to press their views on others by force.
  • Western society is typically individualistic using democracyys, whereas in eastern societies they are usually collectivitis and obey the rules dictators and groups.
  • Western views and Eatern views typically differ greatly.

Case Studies

  • Afghanistan- Western society and Taliban
  • Tribes in Rowanda
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Patterns of Conflict

Patterns of Conflict

  • International-  where conflict involves the participation of more than one country
  • National- where the conflict takes place within a country
  • Regional- where conflict takes place within an area of one country, or across the borders of one or more countries.
  • Local-  where the conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of a country.
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The Expression of Conflict

Non-violent conflict: Conflict that does not involve force or armed struggle. Conflict is displayed by word, sign, matching or silent protest. This has been successful in Ukraine which resulted in political changes.

Political activity: Political activity involves groups operating within a country who seek to aquire political power. The parties develop a political programme that defines their ideology and set out the agenda they would persue. It often involves debate between different parties and is undertaken in a political procedure.

Terrorism: This is a systematic fear among the public to force the authorities into political action for a political, ideological end. International terrorism has become increasingly widespread, in particular suicide bombings.

Insurrection: Insurrection is a revolt against civil authority, rebelling against the rules of that group or society. People involved in insurrection are known as insurgents, and they typically engage in regular combat against armed forces of the established regime, or conduct sabotage and harassment to undermine the governments position.

War: A state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations. The armed forces are the protagonists of the war.

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Conflict Resolution

Conflict resolution: is the way in which a conflict is resolved at different scales. The expression of conflict- debate, political activity, war can lead to resolution. The type of conflict will mean resolution will vary.

Conflict over the use of a local resource: The expansion of several airports are as well as in Cambridge they tried to introduce a Tesco's to mill road in Cambridge which was met with opposition.

Resolving conflict: These conflicts are resolved by market processes, planning processes or a combination.

Market processes: the ability of the organisation undertaking the project to pay the going rate takes precedence over any local concerns or national concerns. Objectors may not have the funds to outbid the developer and development goes ahead with minimum consulation. During consulation the oppostion may voice objections, or purpose counter arguements, but do not have the right of an appeal.

Planing processes: are an attempt to provide a means by which local authority planners. They listen to the local authority, listen to the organisation responsible for a proposal, and have overall development control.

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Israeli Palestinian conflict in the middle east

Israeli Palestinian conflict in the Middle East

  • Before the first world war Palestne was a district rules by the Turkish Ottoman empire, until they were defeated by the British and their alliance
  • After WW1 Britain took control of Palastine but there has been conflict between the Arabs and Jews that live there.
  • Britains began to struggle with ruling Palastine so allowed the United Nations to intervene and in 1948 the state of Israel was created, with the president of the USA giving his backing.
  • The Arab leaders were in opposition to the plan however Jewish leaders accepted, the Arab leaders became outrages and fought Palastinian forces (6 day war).
  • After months of fighting an uneasy truce was declared as relations continued to be strained between the two. 

 

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The Palestinians

The Palestinians

  • The Palestinians are predomintantly Muslim Arabs, however there also some Christians.
  • They generally live in the middle east but are scattered around the world.
  • Palestinians unlike the Israelis do not have a land to call their own, most of the land they had was given in to the Israelis in 1948
  • Other areas they own are known as the West Bank, Gaza strip, was from Jordan and Egypt in the 1967 6 day war.
  • During the 1960s the Palestinians grew frustrated at not having their own state.
  • Political groups were formed ushc as the Palestine liberation Organisation (PLO), with violent attacks carried out against Israelis.
  • In 1972 11 Israeli athletes were taken hostage
  • Most died when a resuce attempted by the German police failed.
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The Israelis

The Israelis

  • The Israelis live is in Israel.
  • Israel was orinignally a home for the jewish community.
  • Jews have very strong religious ties with the area and it is of extremely high religious significance.
  • Many Jews migrated in the early 20th century to start and set up new lives for themselves, often escaping perseuction in Russia and Europe.
  • Mass migration occured after the second world war due to the holocaust/
  • 1/5 of Israel population are arabs, they are descendents of the palastinians who remained in the country at it's creation.
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The start of the conflict

The Beginning of the conflict

  • In 1987 Palestinians living in the West Bank and the Gaza *****, terrotories occupied by Israel, began demonstarting and fighting against Israeli soldeirs and settlers in an uprising.
  • In the 1990's peace talks began and the Israelis withdrew from much of the West Bank and Gaza *****.
  • The PLO agreed to stop attacks against the Israelis, however peace talks failed and the uprising continued in 2001.
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The Occupied Territories

The Occupied Territoris

  • The Gaza ***** and West Bank are both occupied areas of land where many Palestininas live.
  • After 1948 war, Jordan took control of the West Bank and Egypt took control of the Gaza strip.
  • Israel captured both areas in 1967, where Jewish people set up settlements with some as big as small towns, which are considered illegal by international law.
  • In 2005 Israel withdrew all of its settlers and troops from the gaza strip. It maintained control of the area's borders, coastline and airspace.
  • Four settlements in the Northern Banks had to be evacuated.
  • The Israeli prime minister Ariel Shanon proposed a withdrawal plan, however this was unpopular with many Israelis.
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The Impacts of the Conflict

The Impacts of the Conflict

  • During 1948 and 1967 hundreds of Palestinians left and became refugees in neighbouring countires.
  • More than 4 million Palestinians are now refugees are living in camps such as Syria, Jordan and Lebanon.
  • Human rights groups believe the Israeli army treats Palestinians too harshly in the occupied territories. e.g. the Israelis have put up many check points on roads between villages
  • Israel has built a massive barrier in the West Bank consisting of a strong fence and a concrete wall, which is to prevent Palestinian sucide bombers travelling to Israeli cities.
  • The barrier was only supposed to be temporary which would be removed once a peace agreement was reached.
  • The Palestinians feel the barrier restricts their land cutting through their villages.
  • To try and create a better atmosphere some of the Palestinians have been released to try and create a better atmsophere. 
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The Gaza *****

The Gaza *****

  • The Gaza strip is one of the occupied territories of the southwest of Israel, it occupied 363km2 northeast of the Sinai Peninsula.
  • The offical population is more than 1 million people, but the actual population is larger.
  • Gaza had been a prosperous trading centre, the economic issues were due to extreme poverty and the large number of Palestinian refugees.
  • In 1987 there was rioting among Gaza's Palestinians marked the beginning of the first Intifada.
  • Continued unrest led in 1993 to an agreement between Israel and the PLO, granted limited autonomy to the Palestinian population of the Gaza strip and West Bank.
  • In 2000 there was another outbreak of violence, fighting Israel withdrew all its soldiers and settlers from the Gaza strip in 2005, and control of the territory was transferred to the Palestinians.
  • Gaza is a difficult place to live due to dense population, high unemployment, people are poor, and the economy is crippled by an international boycott and Israel has been withholding Palestinain revenues.
  • More than 50% of Gazans are 17 years or younger and the perception is there life is not progressing well.
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Situation in 2007-2008

The Situation in 2007-2008

  • In 2006 Palestinian elections were held under a peace process brokered by the international community.
  • The elections were won by a radical group called Hamas, the Islamic resistance movement that calls for the establishment of an Islamic state, however it has not been recongised by Israel, USA or European governments who have imposed sanctions.
  • A power battle ensued reaching the highest levels of Palestinian politics. Fatah gunmen are loyal to the Palestinian presiedent, Mahmoud Abbas, Hamas gunmen to the Palestinian prime minsiter.
  • Despite repeatedly announced ceasefires, it has been very difficult for them to continue their lives, the Hamas took control in 2007.
  • The UN have said that more than 150 Palestinians died and more than 650 were wounded in international violence in the first 8 months of 2008.
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Darfur

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No Development without security

·         Surveys show that an increasing number of British inhabitants wish for our involvement in Afghanistan to end, while others believe it to be a serious mistake.

·         One aim of deploying armed forces there is to create a stable and democratic society.

·         Better security amounts to building and repairing meaning transportation and distribution became a lot easier.

·         The only products currently that can survive the journey are opium, hashish generating 60% of the economy

·         Afghanistan is the source of 95% of the 30 tonnes used in the UK each year.

·         The British government spends £1billion attempting to combat drugs , ranging from drug awareness campaigns, border searches, school policies

·         In the long run it is in the public’s interest to reduce amount of heroin and the amounts of addicts

·         Large amounts of money have gone into Afghanistan helping with wages, government officials IT systems.

·         The country does not generate enough money to operate as a modern democracy

·         Much of the aid has disappeared; they were supposed to have received $55 million.

·         Many of the locals continue to grow the drugs

·         Had more investment been made there may have been a decline in the drug production.

·         There was a decline of production in Helmand of 10% in 2005, but a 1370% increase in the neighbouring Nimroz.

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No security without developmet

·         The failure of international aid to made a difference is causing serious security consequences

·         Red Cross report shows that the worsening conflict is spreading to the north and west alongside growing suicide bombings in Kabul.

·         Afghanistan was promised far less money than other post conflict countries and too little has gone towards the Afghanistan government running themselves.

·         The quality of aid has often been poor with many school girls just working in tents

·         President Hamid however pointed out that 40,000 Afghanistan babies would not still be alive today if it was not for the improvements in health care.

·         Some aid is working as there are 10% teachers who are paid by the British tax payer

·         The national solidarity programme has been responsible for implementing schemes such as drainage, clinics, small power project and schools.

·         Much of the aid goes back to the donor countries from their salaries

·         The Afghan community is concerned that it will have no choice over the aid it receives.

·         The UK foreign office admits there have been teething problems

·         Poppy cultivation is still on the increase in Afghanistan.

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