A2 Physical Geography Revision Guide

A2 Physical Geography Revision Guide, covering all Earth and Climatic Hazards with in-depth case studies on hazards in both MEDCs and LEDCS, the impacts of such hazrds, and how they can be managed.

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A2 Physical Geography
(Natural Hazards)
Revision Guide
2010 Haiti (LEDC)
2003 Bam (NIC)
1995 Kobe (MEDC)
2011 Japan Tsunami (MEDC)
2004 Boxing Day (Asian) Tsunami (LEDC/NIC)
1999 Oklahoma (MEDC)
2011 TuscaloosaBirmingham Tornado (MEDC)
2008 Cyclone Nargis (LEDC)
2005 Katrina (MEDC)
1998 Mitch (LEDC)
Montserrat (LEDC)
Mount Etna (MEDC)
Mass Movement (Mudslides and Landslides)
1966 Aberfan (MEDC)
1999 Venezuela (NIC)
1998 Bangladeshi Floods (LEDC)
2004 Boscastle Flood (MEDC)
2002 European Floods (MEDC)

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Primary and Secondary Impacts
The primary impact of the earthquake (the physical effects of the earthquake) caused
secondary impacts such as homelessness, disease and civil unrest. Vital
infrastructure needed for a response was destroyed.
Vital infrastructure needed for a response to the disaster was destroyed.
Electricity supplies were disrupted.
Roads were blocked (the main road between PortauPrince and Jacmel was
still blocked 10 days after the earthquake).
The international airport was unusable due to controltower damage, as was
PortauPrince harbour.…read more

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One rescue worker said: `The situation is true madness. There are more and
more bodies, in numbers that cannot be grasped'.
Foreign Aid:
Much of the early rescue work was done by Haitians and by teams from the
Dominican Republic, the first country to respond.
Within 24 hours a medical team from Iceland had landed then a team of 50
strong Chinese soon followed, Qatar and Israel also sent teams to set up field
hospitals.…read more

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Between 23 major charities, US$1.1 billion had been collected for Haiti for
relief efforts, but only two percent of the money had been released.
In October 2010, a cholera epidemic broke out, probably introduced by foreign
aid workers. Cholera most often affects poor countries with limited access to
clean water and proper sanitation. By the end of 2010, more than 3,333 had
died at a rate of about 50 deaths a day.…read more

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The Iranian Government established the Guiding Office for the Recovery of
Bam (GO), consisting of a panel of 11 members, with the Minister of Housing
and Urban Development as the chairman. The GO played a key role in the
reconstruction progress by appointing consulting architects to plan, analyse
and review possible strategies in the urban redesign for enhanced earthquake
resistance in the future.…read more

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One of the factors that the redevelopers failed to
take into account was therefore social factors such as vulnerability, resulting
in a slow rebuilding process.
The government of Iran offered grants to rebuild houses. However, as of 2006
residents chose to live in camps. Relief workers denounced this practice and
called the camps spawning ground for a host of problems.…read more

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The psychological programme assessed 20,000 people, 9,300 of which were
identified as needing mental support, with more than 5,600 people going
through individual or group counselling as a result.
Although the permanent hospital in Bam was rebuilt, the temporary hospital is
stored in preparation for a future emergency response to as disaster, not only
in Iran but in the regional area.…read more

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Kobe "Great Hanshin" Earthquake, Japan
The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on Tuesday, January
17, 1995, at 05:46 JST (January 16 at 20:46 UTC) in the southern part of Hygo
Prefecture, Japan. It measured 6.8 on the Richter scale. The tremors lasted for
approximately 20 seconds. The focus of the earthquake was located 16 km beneath
its epicentre, on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the city of Kobe.…read more

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Soils were liquefied (land loses strength and stiffness due to an applied stress
and causes it to act as a liquid) and caused many buildings made to withstand
earthquakes, standing at an angle.
Many of the older wooden buildings collapsed.
10% of schools and 14% of services were destroyed.
A large section of railway was destroyed and a 130km section of the 'bullet
train' rail network had to be closed.
More than 45,000 homes were destroyed.…read more


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