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A2 Physical Geography
(Natural Hazards)
Revision Guide


2010 Haiti (LEDC)
2003 Bam (NIC)
1995 Kobe (MEDC)


2011 Japan Tsunami (MEDC)
2004 Boxing Day (Asian) Tsunami (LEDC/NIC)


1999 Oklahoma (MEDC)
2011 TuscaloosaBirmingham Tornado (MEDC)


2008 Cyclone Nargis (LEDC)
2005 Katrina (MEDC)
1998 Mitch (LEDC)



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2010 Haiti Earthquake


On 12th January 2010, an earthquake registering a magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter
scale, struck the Caribbean island nation of Haiti. Haiti has a history of destructive
earthquakes due to its position on a fault line, but this was the worst in 200 years The…

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Primary and Secondary Impacts

The primary impact of the earthquake (the physical effects of the earthquake) caused
secondary impacts such as homelessness, disease and civil unrest. Vital
infrastructure needed for a response was destroyed.


Vital infrastructure needed for a response to the disaster was destroyed.
Electricity supplies were disrupted.…

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One rescue worker said: `The situation is true madness. There are more and
more bodies, in numbers that cannot be grasped'.

Foreign Aid:

Much of the early rescue work was done by Haitians and by teams from the
Dominican Republic, the first country to respond.
Within 24 hours a medical…

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camps had no electricity, running water, or sewage disposal, and the tents
were beginning to fall apart.
Between 23 major charities, US$1.1 billion had been collected for Haiti for
relief efforts, but only two percent of the money had been released.
In October 2010, a cholera epidemic broke out, probably…

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The Iranian Government established the Guiding Office for the Recovery of
Bam (GO), consisting of a panel of 11 members, with the Minister of Housing
and Urban Development as the chairman. The GO played a key role in the
reconstruction progress by appointing consulting architects to plan, analyse
and review…

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purchase over 1200 properties to facilitate and help shape the infrastructural
redevelopment process. One of the factors that the redevelopers failed to
take into account was therefore social factors such as vulnerability, resulting
in a slow rebuilding process.
The government of Iran offered grants to rebuild houses. However, as of…

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The psychological programme assessed 20,000 people, 9,300 of which were
identified as needing mental support, with more than 5,600 people going
through individual or group counselling as a result.
Although the permanent hospital in Bam was rebuilt, the temporary hospital is
stored in preparation for a future emergency response to…

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1995 Kobe "Great Hanshin" Earthquake, Japan

The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on Tuesday, January
17, 1995, at 05:46 JST (January 16 at 20:46 UTC) in the southern part of Hygo
Prefecture, Japan. It measured 6.8 on the Richter scale. The tremors lasted for
approximately 20 seconds. The…

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Soils were liquefied (land loses strength and stiffness due to an applied stress
and causes it to act as a liquid) and caused many buildings made to withstand
earthquakes, standing at an angle.
Many of the older wooden buildings collapsed.
10% of schools and 14% of services were destroyed.


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