Revision Notes A2 AQA Geography World Cities

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  • Created on: 04-04-12 17:08
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Scool- Revision notes, World cities
URBAN AREA is a city or town.
URBANISATION: The process whereby rural areas (countryside) are becoming urban. It will involve an
increase in the absolute (and usually percentage of) population living in the urban area. The urban
area will also grow in size to cover a greater physical area and there will be a move away from
primary employment to secondary and later, tertiary.
An urban area can grow by two processes. Firstly, it will grow as a result of natural increase and
secondly, as a result of net migration.
The developed world has experienced Urbanisation for hundreds of years. In the UK, this was largely
following the Industrial Revolution in late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Population
density is lower than in the developing world. Growth in cities in developed world cities has largely
stabilised, but there are still many issues which need addressing.
Urbanisation is a more recent phenomenon in the developing world. The growth over the past fifty
years of many developing world cities has had major implications for the people living there and their
management. Population density is very high.
The majority of the world's largest cities are in the developing world (2011):
1. Tokyo, Japan 35.6 million
2. Chongqing (Chungking), China 31.4 million
3. New York City, Philadelphia area, USA 30.1 million
4. Mexico City, Mexico 21.5 million
5. Seoul, South Korea 20.15 million
6. Sao Paulo, Brazil 19.9 million
7. Jakarta, Indonesia 18.2 million
8. Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto, Japan 17.6 million
9. New Delhi, India 17.36 million
10. Mumbai, India (Bombay) 17.34 million
The number of million cities in the developing world will continue to increase. 'A million city' is one
which has reached a population of one million plus.

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Case Study
Urbanisation in LEDC's- Dharavi, Mumbai
Formally known as Bombay, is India's largest city with around
14,350,000 people.…read more

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Previous solutions
In 1970 a major plan was developed to move many of the port industries in
to Navi Mumbai on the mainland to the east. The plan was only partially
successful and central Mumbai is still overcrowded, so are the transport
links. The focus is now on Dharavi.
Dharavi ­ the solution today
The governments of Mumbai and the Maharashtra state are now planning wholesale
development of the Dharavi slum.…read more

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The process of suburbanisation is entering a new phase with offices and businesses now
leaving the city for the suburbs
Rapid urban growth creates social and environmental problems, including sprawl, pollution,
congestion, and problems of water supply and waste disposal
1. SUBURBANISATION ­ decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part
of the city towards the margins of the built up area ­ the effects of suburbanisation are felt
within the city and in the surrounding rural areas.
2.…read more

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Many estates were private houses, Surbiton, middle class and affluent, little crime,
environmentally sustainable
Still several council estates built to re-house people from the inner
cities, Becontree, working class and unemployed, similar to what
it was like in inner city London, high crime rates, limited facilities
The major consequence of Suburbanisation therefore was social
N.B.…read more

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Where do people move to?
LA has a total of 28 edge cites
Orange county where it is much safer than central LA
Why move to an edge city?
Much safer
Provide more offices and more advanced communications
Large malls are built due to good transport, and high incomes Warner Centre
Cheaper house prices in areas such as Woodland hills, than city centre
Much shorter commute, only 5 minutes instead of up to 1 hour
COUNTER URBANISATION -The movement of people from an urban…read more

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Rural dream (idea of the `rural idyll' ­ pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.)
Estate Agents, housing developers etc. All encourage outward movement through new
developments / building more houses and marketing these areas.…read more

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Problems of growth
Shortage of affordable housing in the city
Severe traffic congestion on the roads over half the people who work in Cambridge live
outside the city centre, worst being in the south
Skilled workers are unwilling to move to Cambridge because of the high cost of housing
Corridor development
New towns, rural Brownfield sites
Expanded market towns e.g.…read more

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RE-URBANISATION- Is the movement of people into the city centre or inner city. This is part of urban
Three main processes
1. GENTRIFICATION-In movement by individuals or groups of people into older housing that was in
a state of disrepair and then the improvement of the housing
2. PROPERTY LED REGENERATION SCHEMES- in movement by people as part of a large scale investment
programme aimed at urban regeneration in a wider social economic sense
3.…read more

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Secluded gardens which area desirable for families
Notting Hill the film ( Hugh Grant) popularised the area
Famous people like Stella McCartney and Robbie Williams
However it is not all nice the Trellick tower was built in 1973 is infamous for rape and drug
Built by Hungarian Erno Goldfinger
There is an area of gentrification next to an area of deprivation
Nowadays there is extra security, and is a listed building so it is
now becoming more trendy
Consequences of gentrification
Urban decline
Characteristics…read more


Joe Pape

Your notes have literally got me through revision, thanks a lot!

Taj Dogra

Thanks, very good notes :)

Josh Price

take a bow son


these notes are amazing, I like that there is a detailed case study for every section of the topic.

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