Geography A2 Synoptic revision cards

Maghreb region cards

HideShow resource information

Libya

Social:

  • Highest HDI in Africa
  • Unemployment highest in Maghreb
  • 2002; on track to meet all eight MDGs
  • Authoritarian regime
  • Conservative attitude towards women
  • Rocky relations with Algeria after civil war

Water:

  • Rainfall only between 200 and 600mm a year
  • Reliance on fossilised groundwater
  • Spatial imbalnce
  • The Great Man Made River Project; provides water security however not sustainable
  • Fears that NATO bombing could destroy the pipelines.
  • 62% of population employed in industry- reliant on water supplies
1 of 15

Libya cntd.

Economic:

  • 7th Highest GDP
  • Highest GDP out of all Meghrab countries; $14,000PPP
  • Value added from industry (e.g. China) 
  • Libya; vast oil reserves; as global demand increases and the availability becomes sparser Libya may be able to raise prices. However, reliant on foreign investment to keep industry alive 
  • Recent conflict jeapoardised trade with foreign countries 

 Global groupings:

  • CSS (free trade area) and AMU (currently inactive and frozen)

Tourism (currently contributes <1% of GDP)

  • Cultural tourism biggest draw
2 of 15

Mauritania

Social:

  • Military coup 2008 and 2005
  • 20% of people live on less than $1.25 a day
  • Came 135th out of 139th for brain drain
  • Mainly primary industry
  • In first stage (of 3) in development; factor driven
  • Signed an agreement with World Bank- IMF mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF)  see figure 4

Environmental:

  • Rich in iron ore; 50% of exports. Harms the env. when being dug up
  • Over explotiation of marine ecosystem
  • Environmental degradation; desertification
  • Has 12 ecoregions
  • Aird climate; desertified making infrastructure development hard
3 of 15

Mauritania cntd.

Tourism:

  •  Little tourism due to terroism
  • 2007: 5 tourists killed
  • 2009: terroist attack
  • Foreign and Commonwealth Office: advise against all non essential travel to Mauritania

Economy:

  • GDP: $2100 PPP; 36th out of 52 countries. Lowest out of Maghreb
  • Mainly primary industry; little profit
  • High external debt links to low HDI
  • Strategies such as HIPC
4 of 15

Morocco

Social:

  • Low GDP
  • Low literacy rate
  • High brain drain
  • High % in tourism
  • Disparity in wealth
  • Arab Spring; protests smaller more subdued than other countries
  • One of the most politically stable countries in North Africa
  • Pollution of water supplies

Terroism:

  • 28th April 2011; bomb attack in Marrakesh: 17 killed
  • May 2003; bomb attack: 45 killed
5 of 15

Morocco cntd

Political:

  • Barcelona Conference; Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; Morocco already foremost beneficary. Aid will increase; 2011-13. Agreements on Free trade. Open Skies Agreement
  • Cities without shantytowns
  • 75% of exports go to EU
  • 2002; OPEC fund for International Development loaned Morocco $15 million to help finance water supply project.
  • Democratic; stable trading partner

Economic:

  • Proposing high speed rail like from Marrakesh to Tanier via Agadir.
6 of 15

Morroco cntd

Terroism:

  • 2nd largest foreign exchanger earner after phosphate industry
  • Low cost airlines; switched on/off
  • Plan Azur: 11% rise in tourism in the first five month of 2008
  • Cultural tourism
  • Vision 2010; 2000 (4.5 mill tourists) 2010 (10 mill)
  • Allow for creation of 2,250 jobs
  • 16.2% GDP

Environment:

  • Araar and Argan trees valubale; helpted to promote rural economic growth
  • Souss-Massa; only national park
  •  Northern Saharan steppe
7 of 15

Algeria

History:

  • Algerian Civil War and Algerian War (see fig 7) shows a drop of -15% in 94 and -7% in 96/7

Terroism:

  • high rate of kidnappings in 2011
  • 11th Dec 07 Two bombs in central Algiers

Economy:

  • 4th highest GDP in Africa
  • 3rd in HDI in region
  • Growth rate of 3%
8 of 15

Algeria cntd

Water scarcity:

  • Overuse of underground aquifers; being exploited to 90% of capacity
  • Hamma Water Desalinisation; provide water to Algeria
  • Semi Arid climate
  • No rivers
  • Estimated by 2020; only have 25l of water avaliable per inhabitant per day; will be ranked among 6 poorest countries in water resources in the world.

Tourism:

  • 1% of Algeria's GDP
  • Goal to attract 3 million tourists by 2013
  • Low levels of tourism due to poor investment in hotels and threat of terroism
9 of 15

Algeria

Arab Spring & politics:

  • Hasn't spread due to relationsip between capital and provinces
  • Political vaccuum; no political parties that can debate and offer a new sense of vision
  • Morocco and Algeria dispute over Western Sahara

Industry:

  • High percentage involved in industry
  • Likely to be due to an abundance of resources; crude oil and natural gas; heavy reliance upon
10 of 15

Algeria cntd

The Algerian government have taken advantage of recent high growth rates and subsidised micro credit programmes to support private initiatives in backwards regions

11 of 15

Tunisia

Social:

  • Compulsory free education
  • Womens rights most advanced in arab world
  • poor human rights

Water scarcity:

  • Using all potential water
  • Using full capacity of groundwater; 2.1 billion m (3)
  • well developed; 26 big, 880 smaller dams

Economy:

  • $7,900
  • Growth rate 3.4%
  • Unemployment rate 14%
12 of 15

Tunisia cntd

Terroism:

  • Ghriba Security bombing 2002; 21 killed

Tourism:

  • Ecotourism, spa and medical tourism emerging
  • Now the blue ribbon of African toursim
  • Tunisia tourism struggling after recent politicla riots; many tourists come from Libya; with continuing conflict, decreased tourists
  • Use of e-commerce to increase tourism

Global groupings:

  • AMU, CSS, GAFTA, WTO member
  • Democratic; stable trading partner
13 of 15

Tunisia cntd

Env. problems:

  • Toxic & hazardous waste
  • Water pollution
  • Limited natural freshwater
  • Deforestation
  • Overgrazing
  • Soil erosion
  • Desertification

EU & Tunisia + Tunisia and other African countries:

  • EU is Tunisia's first trading partner
  • FDI in Tunisia €20.8 billion; largest foreign investor in country
  • European Neighbourhood Policy; 2005
  • Agadir Agreement; Morocco, Egypt + Jordan; reducing tarrifs
14 of 15

Tunisia

Arab Spring:

  • 23 killed
  • curfew
  • Many young people fled to Europe, brain drain
  • X for economy; EU chose to distance themselves from foreign investment
  • X impact on tourism in the immediate days; after the uprising saw a loss of 80% of bookings
  • 2300 refugees

Climate:

  • Figure 9: ideal temperature range.
15 of 15

Comments

LazerScythe

This is AMAZING!!!!!!

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »