GEOGRAPHY EQ2 REVISION

  • Created by: edolling
  • Created on: 16-01-19 18:23
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  • ENQUIRY QUESTION 2 - PHYSICAL
    • LESSON 8
      • NORWAY VS ENGLAND:     They have shared commitments in reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by 40% 2030
        • NORWAY- It's mountainous relief means that the generation of HEP can be done  much of which is exported to the UK        COSTS - low investment, the complete transfer from rural to urban is expensive.   TECH - deep water drilling tech enables Norway to develop NOTH SEA OIL EXTRACTION/ GAS
          • Norway: POLITICS - royalties and taxes paid into gov from fossil fuels go to future prep without fossil fuels and environ qualities. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - GDP was $61,000 and energy use was 5854kg. ENVIRONMENT - 3RD largest exporter of hero carbons and in 2015, CO2 emissions up by 0.14 tonnes
        • ENGLAND - until the 70s, UK domestic coal from Yorkshire. 50-70s global leaders in nuclear track slowed when large resins were discovered in the N. Sea.  COST - N. Sea is secure but are expensive. Environment - boarded energy mix and use renewable sources abandoned - 'GREEN DEAI' = CO2
          • TECH - 150 years of coal in UK, but are hard and expensive to extract with current tech,  coal lost political support. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - GDP was $41200 and energy use was 2752kG OIL. POLITICS - increase reliance on forgien sources. concern over fracking and nuclear sites. privatisation - overseas companies control what sources make UK demand
      • Global fuel consumption-ENERGY SECURITY - being able to access reliable and affordable sources of energy. Produce energy by FOSSIL FUELS - dominant still despite link climate change YEMEN AND SAUDI ARABIA ITS MOST RELIABLE AND CHEAPEST(67%) , NUCLEAR(11%), RENEWABLE(wind solar -22%)
        • Some countries run on renewable sources - ETHIOPIA (DEPEND ON RIVERS FOR HYRO POWER) AND ICELAND(GEOTHERMAL). France leads world with nuclear energy - 74%. US remains fossils fuels ranked 106th in renewable - N=19%, FF=68%, R=13%
        • HUMAN - PHYSICAL AVAILABILITY= can domestic energy resources sufficient to meet demand. Transport costs may add to cost of energy the consumer. Rising costs = lower energy consumption. Issue is accessibility.
          • CLIMATE = very high consumption in N.America, ME and Australia - due to energy needed to make extreme heat and cold comfortable. low energy consumption in Africa = lack of energy develop
            • ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES - lack of concern for environ and CO2 emissions, some GOV do not take cheapest route to meet energy demands. Cost of GREEN energy policy could reduce consumption - any GOV's drive to raise energy efficiency and saving
        • PHYSICAL- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - costs relative, same energy costs may be seen s expensive in one place and acceptable in another. Public perception of how expensive it is will depend on level of economic development. the higher the less sensitivity to energy costs. developed nations have wider variety for energy thirsty tech
          • COST - energy cost include many factors = PHYSICAL EXPLOTATION, PREOCESSING, DELIVERY TO CONSUMER
          • TECHNOLOGY - modern tech help exploration of energy resource which are not readably accessible. e.g deposits of oil and gas require deep drilling through contoured geology. two sides of tech can help access resources = increase composition. at time modern tech we rely on each day is energy thirsty
    • LESSON 9
      • Energy Players: stake holders - TNC Government, OPEC, Consumers.
        • TNC - Provide link between where resources situated and who wants them, often response for exploration, production and trading energy) - but can take advantage of locals with lack power and money = gov loyalties e.g shell in Nigeria,
        • Government - can subsides the use of renewable energy to create incentives for population. have duty to follow any international agreements which they members of - e.g. KYOTO PROTOCAL 1997, PARIS AGREEMENT 2015, how they reach target will detriment what energy the consume. it crucial they maintain growth, geopolitical tensions = hinder energy supplies - Russia cutting off Ukraine gas supply. they determine funding on resource and demand alternative sources.
        • OPEC - ORGANISATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES: AIM to protect interest of member nations, stabilise oil prices and ensure suffice economic and regular supply of oil
          • Formed 1960, members produce and export oil, has 785 of world oil reserve, produces around 45% crude oil and 15% natural gas. power to significantly affect oil prices increase or decrease production. is a cartel, price controlling power. can increase production sharply if global economic conditions allow it, its been accused of holding back production to increase prices.
        • CONSUMERS - demand and attitudes of others in varying countries will determine what type energy country will use, energy countries like China, become bigger importers as population became consumers. pressure groups and environmentalists come under categories can often have influence on choice made. consumers can also make decisions will have consequences for oil companies

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