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Superpower geographies revision notes
Superpower geographies

What is a superpower?
Examiner's tip: make sure you have learnt definitions of `superpower' and `emerging superpower' for the exam.

SUPERPOWERS-they are states or organisations with a dominant position in the international system. They have the ability to
influence events in their own interests…

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What are the changing patterns of power?
Examiner's tip: you should be able to understand and describe the changing geography of power in terms of unipolar, bipolar
and multipolar patterns.

Examiner's tip: you should learn a timeline of superpower change and be able to refer to the changing geography of…

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Theories of colonialism

Modernism
The world can be improved through human intervention and achievement. This idea is focused on that Europe could improve the
world.

He believed that the British had a natural capacity for ruling others. Modernists believed that Britain not only could but should rule.

Mackinder's heartland
Mackinder…

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Mechanisms
International Organisations
E.g. WTO

This is through unsustainable lending which leads to debt crisis.
Not doing enough to create trade.

TNCs
Exploitation of workers.
Exploitation of resources.

Developed nations
Brain drain of young people to more developed nations.
Aid for corrupt dictators.

Case study: Ghana
Ghana gained independence from…

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Theories of superpowers
Examiner's tip: provides a useful structure for the exam. Remember these theories are also related to topic five: bridging the
development gap.

Liberal Vs. Marxism

Liberal
This is the creation of wealth and power with a high focus on capitalism as a tool for creating wealth.

The…

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Dependency theory
DEPENDENCY THEORY-this is the idea that developing countries remain dependent on wealthier developed nations for their trade
and income. This theory argues this is the reason for the cause of the poverty trap.

They have no profit for investment because they cannot afford to add value to their…

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The European Union
The EU has grown more unified and more powerful- both politically and economically.
EU countries control 31% of the global GDP.
Some members of the EU are involved in international organisations, e.g. the G8 and NATO.
The EU was set up to achieve political and economic co-operation.…

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Modernisation theory
The aim of the modernisation theory is to assist communist areas where war damage had brought economic collapse. Investment
was focused on Japan, India, Singapore, Mexico and the Philippines. Many of these countries were ex-colonies struggling to thrive
in independence which are currently major colonies.

The modernisation theory…

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Implies that once culture is better than the other.
The culture is deficient because it is put in second place.
Some countries oppose cultural imperialism because they believe it suppresses cultural diversity: preservation of language,
musical styles or literature.

This is known as ANTI-AMERICANISM which is a cultural backlash especially…

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China is the largest consumer of cement in the world.

The high demand is a result of the requirement for construction in their cities which is driven by the economic growth (7.5%-10%) a
year. The demand from China is so large that three largest mining companies of iron ore (who…

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