Threats from hazards in Urban Areas
Smog, destruction of habitats and untreated sewage are all examples of enviornmental hazards in cities.
In rural areas often the standard of living is low.
People can move into cities to seek economic oppertunities.
Cities grow rapidly.
The amount of cars, industries, power stations and waste (rubbish and sewage) grows.
Environmental problems such as smog cause ill health.
Problems associated with flooding:
- cost of rebuilding houses
- loss of possessions
- damaged roads
- damaged drains
- diseases spread
How have inner cities declined?
Factories close and the industry moves out.
High unemployment levels. Less taxes are being paid to the council. Results in crime.
Less money invested in roads, schools, community and homes.
Young people are leaving school with less qualifications.
High unemployment levels.
People have less money to spend in shops.
Inner City Areas
Inner City Areas suffer:
- Over Crowding
- Poor Housing Conditions
- Racial Tension
Inequalities in Urban Areas.
How can inequalities (lack of equalities) be reduced in Urban Areas?
- Adding schools
- Adding green Space
- Reducing litter
- Improving housing quality
- Adding/Improving parks
- Adding nurserys
- Creating more jobs
World Health Organisation (WHO)
The World Health Organisation (WHO) have identified the following ways to improve deprived areas:
- Measuring and understanding the problems in an area
- Improving housing, education and health.
- Building community spirit
The WHO is an organisation which has already improved places such as Nightingale Estate in Hackney (see case study for more information on Nightingale Estate).
B - Beddington
E - Beddington
D - Beddington
Z - Zero
E - Energy
D - Development
Beddington Zero Energy Development are a company which use sustainable resource such as:
Sustainable/Renewable energy: BEDZED make their own compost, recycle, clothes swap etc.
Sustainable Food: BEDZED encourage internet shopping so you dont need to travel and use local farmers to reduce food miles and give farmers more money.
Sustainable Transport: pay to parl (people wont want to pay) and internet shopping (reduce pollution).
Developing Green Space
Advantages of Developing Green Space:
- Vegetation absorbs sound reducing noise pollution
- Absorbs heat in summer and as a result cools buildings
- Provides community space
- Provides a relaxing and clean enviornment
- May improve peoples health
- Vegetation absorbs rainfall reducing urban flooding
Disadvantages of Developing Green Space:
- Costs a lot of money
- Time consuming
- Area could be used for houses reducing the amount of homelessness.