A2 Geography - World Cities

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  • Created by: Amelia239
  • Created on: 18-01-16 14:18

Definitions

Definitions

MEGACITY: metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people. The population density over 2,000 persons/km2. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one another

WORLD CITY: a city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science, information gathering and diffusion, publishing and mass media - serving not just a country or a region but the whole world. New York, Tokyo and London are the three pre-existing world cities although there are some others that could be considered

MILLIONAIRE CITY:  a city with over a million inhabitants

URBANISATION: the growth in the proportion of a country's population that lives in urban as opposed to rural areas. The word is also used, less accurately, to describe the actual process of movement from a rural area to an urban area

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World Cities

World Cities

RESOURCE CENTRES: cities grow because they are resource bases. Companies need access to knowledge in order to grow, and in cities they find access to temporary knowledge networks.

LEARNING CENTRES: if companies learn, they enter cycles of growth and development. To allows this, they must be part of the networks of learning that consist of clusters of universities and other education institutions, policymakers, company research bases, and so on

SPATIAL PROXIMITY: tacit knowledge is particulary likely to exist, develop and grow in certain areas of cities, such as Central Business Districts, university campuses, science parks. Such places are cradles of innovation.

WORLD CITIES CAN BE CHARACTERISED BY:

  • They have shed a lot of their routine - low value activities
  • They have high levels of synergy in their economic structures
  • Offer a wide range of jobs but tendency towards labour forces
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Economic Development

Economic Development

DEVELOPMENT FACTORS (18th Century):

  • The agriculture revolution and the enclosure movement which led to loss of work on the land and more food, which could be transported to neighbouring towns for growing populations
  • Invention of industrial processes that led to the development of the factory system, where production was concentrated close to sources of power, drawing in labour from rural areas
  • New forms of power, so that coal took the place of water power, concentrating industry in the mining areas rather than having it spread alone rivers
  • Improved transport systems: canals at first and followed by trains and cars
  • Gradual improvements in medicine, hygiene and public health, which allowed large numbers of people to live in close proximity without leading to inevitable spread of disease

This process led to rapid urbanisation of the populations of many of the countries of western Europe and North America. Unfortunatly, the process did not operate smoothly as it led to dreadful conditions in rural and urban areas so peoples quality of life decreased massively.

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Economic Development Case Study - Mumbai

Economic Development Case Study - Mumbai

THE INFLUX OF PEOPLE CAUSED:

  • The spread of suburbs of cheap and poorly built housing, further and further away from the centre where jobs are located
  • Consequent massive overcrowding on trains and buses that carry commuters into the centre
  • The development of squatter settlements where the shelters are frequently built from recycled waste material, often in dangerous areas such as on railway land and on marshland close to the rivers - and these are home, not just to the poorest, but also to some who have regular employment but cannot afford any better

THE PROBLEM:

It is home to more than 600,000 people, most of whom make their living there. Spreading only over 2km2, it has a vast cottage industry which earns US$40m. However the residents enjoy having close connections so are reluctant to allow developers to help

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Econmic Development Case Study - Mumbai

Econmic Development Case Study - Mumbai

THE SOLUTION:

  • The governments want to clear the slums out and introduce houses in stages. Any family that has been a resident since 1995 are intitled to free housing
  • To entice developers the government has had to modify the development control rules for this project so even with the burden of building new buildings, the developers will still get profit
  • Dharavi sits just south of the Mithi River a stones throw away from Bandra Kurla Complex which is a major business hub. So if Dharavi is redeveloped, it will become a major residents for people from BKC.
  • It will also invite 4,500 small industries, ready to make garments and producing leather. Under the scheme, people with such enterprises are entitled to 225 square feet

The project can not go ahead unless a majority of the registered residents agree to it - which means that the views of many unregistered people will be ignored. Moreover, some community leaders claim that the tactics will intice people to agree

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Suburbanisation

Suburbanisation

The process of population movement from the central areas of cities towards the suburbs on the outskirts or the rural-urban fringe.

PUSH FACTORS:

  • The congestion and population density of city centres
  • Pollution caused by industry and high levels of traffic
  • A general perception of a lower quality of life in city centre

PULL FACTORS:

  •  More open spaces and perception of being closer to nature
  • Lower price of land and housing in comparison to the city centre
  • The increasing number of job opportunities in the suburban areas
  • A general perception of better opportunities for education than in central city areas as there is more resources
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Suburbanisation Case Study - LA

Suburbanisation Case Study - LA

BACKGROUND INFO:

  • 14 million people take up space, even in a state like California
  • Even in its early stages of growth, ths suburbs of LA spread a great distance from the city into a sprawling urban mass
  • The suburbs were far from the city and offered a better quality of life - space for a house and a pool, for roads, schools and hospitals

WHAT MADE SUBURBS ACCESSIBLE:

  • The arrival of electric tramways in the 1920's and 1930's meant that people could live further away from work
  • Later motorways spread across the city, allowing city workers to drive in from home far away from the central business district
  • The 1980's saw massive urban growth spreading out as far as the San Bernardino mountains and deserts
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Surbanisation Case Study - LA

Surbanisation Case Study - LA

URBAN SMOG:

  • Increasing congested freeways and greater all pollution count amongst the greatest environment impacts of suburbanisation
  • 10 million car owners create an environmental hazardous smog high pressure systems over LA create dense cold, still air at the surface with warmer air above
  • The cold dense air sits in the urban basin and traps pollution above LA
  • The still conditions allow the smog to build up, creating health hazards like asthma
  • The problem is a culture of car ownership and for a city of 14 million people - poor public transport
  • In 2005, just 10.2% of commuters in LA used public transport, compared to over 40% in London
  • Public transport in LA adds up to be 1.7 million journeys a day, compared to 12 million in London (when londons population is only 60% of that of LA)
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Surbanisation Case Study - LA

Surbanisation Case Study - LA

DONUT CITY:

LA has been described as a donut city - a city with a hole in the centre

  • Long established car tyre, steel and air craft factories closed due to competition from overseas and changing technology. Most were located in the inner suburbs
  • Businesses followed people out of central LA to the suburbs which offered more space, cheaper land and in many cases - lower local taxes
  • Modern high-tech electronics, aerospace and light manufacutirng industries wanted large cities with carparks on the edge of the city
  • Those who could, mainly middle and high income earners, moved out to the suburbs. Large retail malls followed the population and there spending power out to the suburbs. The further away suburbs developed, the less inclined people would be to vist
  • As a result, the inner part became empty, leading to derelication 
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Surbanisation Case Study - LA

Surbanisation Case Study - LA

WATER:

  • Water is piped in LA from 350km away, continues demand for irrigating domestic gardens and filling ponds is causing distputes with neighbouring states. Up to 50% of water is wasted from evaporation before it even reaches the city

WASTE:

  • 24 million people in greater LA area produce 50,000 tonnes of waste every day. However for any liquid container, from a coffe cup to a drinks can be recyled which has increased

ENERGY:

  • In August and September 2010, record heatwave temperatures (up to 45 C) caused power blackouts when power stations were unable to cope with power demands for AC
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Counter-urbanisation

Counter-urbanisation

FACTORS:

  • Some people retire and move to the countryside, the seaside or to a small town
  • Young people go to universities which are usually in the biggest towns and cities
  • Many people seek their early jobs in cities and live as close to their work as possible
  • When people start families they often move outwards, towards suburbs, small towns and rural areas
  • Some successful urban dwellers buy second homes in the country and this may distort the census figures
  • Immigrants often settle in inner urban areas because of access to jobs, availability of cheap housing and the support available in neighbourhoods based on the groups origin.

Counter-urbanisation, reurbanisation and suburbanisation can all occur in the same place at the same time

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Counter-urbanisation Case Study - St Ives

Counter-urbanisation Case Study - St Ives

CHARACTERISTICS:

  • St Ives in Cambridgeshire is about 70 miles north of London and its population has grown from 3,000 to 16,400 between 1961 and 2010
  • It has good rail and road links between Cambridge and London

CAUSES:

  • House prices in London are expensive so its cheaper to move out of the city and commute to work
  • People wanted to move out of London was it was dangerrous for the children as a result of suburbanisation
  • Many jobs are now out of the city centre so people can afford to move further away from the city centre without increasing commuting time
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Counter-urbanisation Case Study - St Ives

Counter-urbanisation Case Study - St Ives

IMPACTS:

  • Traffic is causing congestion during rush hour
  • House prices rose on average from 130,000 to 291,000 between 2000-2010
  • As developers has had to build more housing to meet demands, it has been built on flooding land so it is common for the buildings to flood
  • There are more shops and services in the city centre (supermakets and cafes)

SOLUTIONS:

  • Plans were approved in 2010 to build 200 more homes and atleast 75 will be affordable for poorer people
  • More schools are planning on being built
  • Flood protection plans were put in place so the houses built are protected from the flood water
  • A 116 million guided busway to reduce congestion
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Re-urbanisation

Re-urbanisation

INITIATIVES AIMED TO:

  • Bring derelict land and buildings back into use
  • Improve housing conditions
  • Bring new jobs
  • Improve the chances of local residents applying for these jobs through education
  • Encourage private sector investments in this area
  • Encourage self-help to improve the social fabric of the areas
  • Improve the quality of the environment

All these initiatives are set up to imrpoved conditions for residents to encourage them to stay in the inner cities and also to encourage people to move back to the cities

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Encouraging Re-urbanisation

Encouraging Re-urbanisation

URBAN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS: were set up to regenrate areas that contained large amounts of derelict land. London Docklands are an example of this.

ENTERPRISE ZONES: were also created in 1981 to try and stimulate development in areas of high employment by reducing taxes on businesses easing planning permissions

INNER-CITY TASK FORCE: was a temporary scheme to provide training opportunities. It was credited with creating 50,000 new jobs

SINGLE GENERATION BUDGETS: were set up after a change of government. Local authorties had to bid for regeneration budgets for run-down housing areas. It was felt that the LA involvement would give local people a bigger say in how the money was spent

ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS: is now the national regeneration agency in England. It is based in the government department of  Communities and Local Government

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Re-urbanisation Case Study - London Docklands

Re-urbanisation Case Study - London Docklands

POSITIVE IMPACTS:

  • 24,000 new houses were built
  • Part of the area was made an enterprise zone which attracted businesses
  • The Docklands set up a new railway which cut times to London to less than 20 minutes
  • New schools were built and existing ones were improved
  • The docks were refurbished and it providing a pleasant environment

NEGATIVE IMPACTS:

  • Conflict between older and richer residents as they felt like developers favoured expensive housing
  • Many of the original residents were unable to find work in the new businesses and the jobs required skilled workers
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Re-urbanisation Case Study - London Docklands

Re-urbanisation Case Study - London Docklands

MANAGEMENT:

  • In some areas of the Docklands, the LDDC asked for 40% of the new housing to be sold at affordable prices to existing residents
  • Education centres were set up to provide training unemployed people giving them a qualification
  • The LDDC supported Skillnet which worked with training providers to provide people with the skills they need to find work in the area

3 MAIN PROCESSES:

  • The in-movement of individuals or groups into older housing that was in a state of disrepair and the improvement in housing
  • The in-movement of people as part of a large scale investment programme
  • The move towards sustainable communities, allowing residents to have a job, home and retail
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Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Park H

Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Park Hill

Park Hill in Sheffield is a huge estate of flats, built in the late 1960's and designed to replace some of the sums left from the late 19th century that housed Sheffields factory workers. These flats were perfect as they had hot and cold water taps, indoor toilets and modern amenities. In parallel, as Park Hill aged, local industry went into steep decline and many parts of Sheffield were devastated.

DEVELOPMENTS:

  • Meadowhall shopping complex
  • Nearby Robin Hood International Airport
  • Sheffields tram system of urban transport
  • The Don Valley stadium international sports venue
  • The Advanced Manufacturing Park built by a partnership including Boeing and the University of Sheffield
  • A new city economic development company, Creative Sheffield, which has been established
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Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Thames

Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Thames Gateway

The Thames Gateway is one of four growth areas identified in the UK goverments Sustainable Communities Plan published in February 2003. The plans for redevelopment of the area provide a good example, in some parts, of property-led redevelopment where investment in buildings or transport infrastructure is designed to stimulate an area and attract further development.

The plan is structured around 3 driving forces:

  • A strong economy
  • Improvements to the quality of life
  • Development of the eco-region
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Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Thames

Urban Decline and Regeneration Case Study - Thames Gateway

THE GATEWAY AS AN ECO-REGION:

Plans try to promite schemes to:

  • Cut carbon emissions
  • Conserve water
  • Reduce waste
  • Protect people against flood risk

Plan also announces the following:

  • They will invite proposals to set up at least one 'eco-quarter' within an existing town
  • 80% of new homes will be built on brownfield sites
  • They will darry 0% construction waste and use waste heat to heat neighbouring homes
  • Support will be provided for an environmental innovation park to harness expertise
  • A green grid of parklands and heritage sites will be established
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Gentrification

Gentrification

GENTRIFICATION: is the improvment of housing in an area that was formerly poor and run down. It is mainly carried out by the residents themselves in a piecemeal way. Individual home owners make repairs and improvements to their own property and, over time, if enough houses are improved, the nature of the whole area improves.

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Retailing and Other Services

Retailing and Other Services

CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Built on the edge of a major conurbation, where land is cheap
  • Built on derelict land
  • Close to major transport links and motorways
  • Have plenty of carparking space available
  • Already had, or soon developed, public transport links
  • Combine shopping with lesiure activities like cinema, bowling, mini fun fair etc
  • Are built close to housing areas from which they can draw much of their staff from
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Retailing Case Study - Merryhill

Retailing Case Study - Merryhill

Merry Hill is a retail facility which was built between 1984 and 1989, with extensions going on today. These extentions and new developments show how all kinds of retail developments

Merry Hill Has:

  • 100,000m2
  • Multiplex cinema
  • Retail warehouse
  • 8,000 car spaces
  • Customer visits

However it drew attention from neighbouring towns like Halesowen, but it majorly affected Dudley.

Depending on the method of measurement, it is probably the third biggest in the UK

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Retailing Case Study - Merryhill

Retailing Case Study - Merryhill

IMPACTS:

  • The movement of large chains to the centre meant business moved out of the neighbouring towns and left behind abondoned city centres
  • The shops that were left behind had a massive drop in visitor numbers which affected their income
  • Furthermore, Dudley Council announced charges on car parks which detered more people away and towards Merry Hill

RECENT AND PLANNED DEVELOPMENTS:

  • Trying to intergrate into the local area
  • Replacement cinema
  • Direct walkways and proposed casino
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Urban Centre Redevelopment Case Study - Touchwood

Urban Centre Redevelopment Case Study - Touchwood

Touchwood is a shopping centre in Solihull, on the south-east of the West Midlands and the opposite side from Dudley.

WHY IT WORKED:

  • It intergrated with the local area by using plants and old features
  • Attracted major chains and brands
  • Reflects architectual features of the local area
  • 6,000 car park spaces
  • Is 265,000 square feet
  • Has a cineworld
  • Naturally lit with open spaces
  • Has 4 big gardens
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Waste Management Methods

Waste Management Methods

DISPOSAL:

  • Disposing in landfill involves burying waste
  • If well managed, landfill is inexpensive and relatively hygienic
  • If badly managed, landfill can create adverse environmental impacts
  • Modern landfill sites include methods to minimise the negative effects

INCINERATION:

  • Combustion of waste material to generate heat and electricity
  • Practical method of hazardous waste, biological medicine waste
  • Controversial issues concerning gas pollutants
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Waste Management Methods

Waste Management Methods

RECYLING:

  • Process of extracting value or products from waste
  • The raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed or the energy may be converted into energy

PHYSICAL REPROCESSING:

  • Developed countries recyling, collection of waste
  • Recyling materials may be collected at different times to normal waste using dedicated vehicles
  • Products that can be recycled: aluminium cans, steel cans, plastic bags, glass bottles and many more.
  • Composed of one material = easy to use
  • Recycling something composed of more than one can be hard and time consuming
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Waste Management Methods

Waste Management Methods

BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING:

  • Organic waste can be composted
  • Waste gas from the process can be captured and used for energy
  • Variety of composting methods

ENERGY RECOVERY:

  • Energy content of waste harnessed directly
  • Direct combustion
  • Processing into another fuel
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Energy Reduction

Energy Reduction

REDUCTION:

  • Reuse second hand products
  • Repair broken items
  • Designing refilable items and items which will use less material in the packaging
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Transport Case Study - USA

Transport Case Study - USA

THE 10 PRINCIPLES OF SMART GROWTH:

  • Provide a variety of transportation choices
  • Mix land uses
  • Create a large of housing opportunities and choices
  • Create walkable neighbourhoods
  • Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration
  • Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place
  • Make development decisions predictable, fair and cost effective
  • Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty and critical environmental areas
  • Strengthen and direct development towards exisiting communities
  • Take advantage of compact building design and efficient infrastructure design
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