Human Geography


What are the differences between millionaire, mega

millionaire - 1 million people, there are 400 worldwide, originally these were found in developed countries but now they are growing increasingly in the developing world e.g Budapest

mega - population of more than 10 million people, there are around 20 worldwide, 2/3 of which are found in the developing world e.g Mumbai 

world - a world city is a city of global influence, often the headquaters of major TNCs and are centres of finance (e.g New York is home to the Wall Street stock exchange and HSBC headquarters in London), and culture (e.g Milan, Paris and London fashion shows), they are found more in the developed world but more are expected to emerge in the developing world, some world cities are politically important (e.g Brussels where the European Parliament and other aspects of the UN are found despite being one of the smallest nations) an example in the developing world would be Mumbai in India which is the financial hub of the country and the home the Bollywood 

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What are the reasons for rural- urban migration?

- in the 18th and 19th century, the Industrial and Agricultural revolutions coincided creating a decrease in the need for manual labour in the countryside in Britain so people moved to the cities to work in factories 

- in Lima, 70% of the economy of Peru is found 

- in Mexico sub-division means there is insufficient land in rural areas and so many people move to the cities, creating over populated mega cities such as Mexico City 

- in Ecuador 'haciendas' are being modernized which has decreased the workforce needed by 50%

- flooding along the rural areas of the river Ganges in Bangladesh means people move to the cities where floods defences are better 

- in Lima and many other cities, people move for education as there are often universities and higher education facilities 

- healthcare is often better in the cities, in Lima there are 20% fewer patients per doctor and so patients have 10 years longer life expectancy

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What are the problems of rural-urban migration?

1. slums - In Dharavi, Mumbai (India) over 1 million people out of the 12.5 million population lives in slums, similarly in Kibera, Nairobi (Kenya) over 1 million people live on less than $1 US a day 

2. built on undesirable land - Rocina in Rio de Janeiro is prone to mudslides due to the soil composition and inclination of the slope on which it is built

3. poverty - 90% of Nairobi's population live in slums, 95% live in poverty and 4/5 are unemployed with only jobs in the informal sector 

4. healthcare/sanitation - 1/2 of Kibera has HIV, in Mumbai healthcare is estimated to only reaching 30% of the poor and there is a high infant mortality (40 per 1000 per year)

5. pollution - in Chembur, Mumbai, open air rubbish tips burn waste, adding to pollution, 25% of deaths between 2007-8 were caused by respiratory problems

6. congestion - thousands travel on Mumbai's road network everyday creating a high traffic density, the highest in Asia 

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How can urbanisation be managed?

1. involving residents - by letting residents chose what the want to improve they become happier e.g $300 million Favela - Bairro project in Rio de Janeiro 

2. improving sanitation - Slum Sanitation Program in Mumbia 1995 where 330 toilet blocks were built 

3. replacing slums - São Paulo has the Cingapura Housing Project which housed slum dwellers in high rise flats 

4. improving services - São Paulo has the Monte Azul community association which provides education and free healthcare 

5. improving transport - 140km of lines on the Metro set to finish in 2021 in Mumbai 

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What is the relationship between economic developm

1. global - there has been rapid urbanisation in the last 50 years, 50% of the world's population lives in cities and 20% live in those with over 1 million people 

2. in the past - Britain had the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries creating rapid urbanisation 

3. now - continents like Africa and Asia are set to have an influx of urbanisation, by 2025 50% of their populations will live in cities, 80% of global urban dwellers will be in these continents 

4. anomaly - Kinshasa in the Congo has had a rise of population by three times the original amound in only 9 years without the economic development to match 

5. other processes - other processes such as suburbanisation and counterurbanisation may be more influencial now as developed countries are entering these stages 

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What are the reasons for suburbanisation?

1. public transport - London's first electric tube line opened in the 1890's and the first one reached the suburbs between 1905 and 1909

2. salaries - salaries became regular and so people can afford to move out of the poor 1940s housing and desire greenary 

3. decentralisation - 60% of London suburbs have their own town centres, London County Council rehoused people from the East London Slum Clearance in Becontree

4. car ownership and access - 70% of people in Surbiton own a car, it is a suburb close to the A3 and M25, 18 minutes via train to the Waterloo line 

5. technology - people can now do business from home so they can live and work in desirable areas 

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What are the impacts of suburbanisation?

1. economic segregation - house price average 2012 in Surbiton was £406,000 whereas the UK average was £226,000 

2. middle class culture - environmental lobbying becomes especially common such as in Crossflats where there was a 'save our greenfields' campaign 

3. congestion - 40% of the workers in Surbiton commute to London which adds to the congestion which is already on the A3 and M25

4. expensive travel - Surbiton is in London travel zone 6 which creates expensive fairs to London 

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How can suburbanisation be managed?

1. improving Brownfield sites - in Birmingham the Big City Plan of 2011 improved 5 inner city areas creating 5,000 new homes and 50,000 new jobs 

2. protecting greenfields - legilation put in place in the 1950s to protect these areas, keeping them desirable and preventing urban sprawl 

3. improving access - in Surbiton the improvement for Surbiton Town Centre in 2009 saw the widening of roads, allowing traffic to move quicker 

4. improving public transport - there was a campaign to reclassify Surbiton as in travel zone 5 which would reduce transport costs, secure bike storage in the station was also created 

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What are the problems with suburbanisation in Mumb

1. transport - the main road route is the travel express highway where a 13.6 mile journey can take up to 3 hours due to the volume of traffic, as only 18% of the population have cars, the more popular mode of transport is the Western Railway which is particularly popular on the 'C' and 'CH' lines

2. socio-economic divide - in the area of Bandra tourists are attracted by 180,000 per year to the Juhu beach area where the GDP is $20,000 a year in comparison to the poorer areas where there is only $1,900 of GDP

3. foreign investment - TNCs like the Tata Group invest in certain areas, this should create a GDP of $23,000 in 2021 

4. land reclamation - in the Eastern area of Kamamurar Nagar I there are illegal settlements on floodplains where in July 2005 over 700 people were killed by the flooding of the Ulhas River 

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What are the pulls, problems and ways of managing

counterurbanisation is when people move from urban areas to rural areas 

Pull Factors...

location - St Ives is 70 miles North of London where the population grew from 3,800 to 16,400 in just 50 years 

accessibility - the A14 is easily accessed to Cambridge as well as the A1, there is also the East Coast railway line which allows 1/4 of the residents to commute to London 

environment - the area is picturesque with the attraction of the River Ouse, georgian and victorian housing and apartments along the south bank of the river 

improvements - over the years there have been improvements in services and the age structure has changed as now there are more under 16s than over 65s  

Push Factors...

traffic - there is often rush hour and congestion along the A14 as it is an arterial road

house prices - in just 10 years they have increased from £130,000 to almost £300,000

flooding - 1,000 properties are at risk from a 1 in 100 year flood event 


- affordable housing is set to be built, in 2010 200 new homes were built with 75 aimed at lower income groups 

- there are plans to create 250 more places at the local primary school

- flood protection is always being improved, defences were worth £8.8 million in 2007 

- congestion is aimed to be reduced through the £116 million guided busway and expansions to Cambridge station 

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What are the causes of inner city decline?

inner city decline - when the inner city loses money, jobs and population as people and businesses move to the suburbs and rural areas 

deindustrialisation - when industry moves elsewhere or declines

change in the economy - 1/4 of the worlds came through the London Docklands leading up to the shutting of the East India Dock in 1967 when 83,000 jos were lost even after being rebuilt after the blitz of WWII 

containerization - in 1981 ships couldnt reach the docks due to  meanders in the Thames 

globalisation - in total 1.6 million jobs were lost nationally, 75% of which, from the 1950's onwards was accounted for in Manchester and Sheffield 

social change - outmigration in Liverpool and Manchester led to a decline of over 25% while in inner London, the population decreased by 10% between 1961 and 1971 

physical decline - 20% of the housing in inner London was unfit to live in as well as poor public transport isolating the East end leading to an uninhabitable area 

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What is gentrification?

gentrification - the gentry buy run down houses and modernise them, this is not a government initiative but is encouraged by government plans to improve infrastructure 

In the past - Portland Road, Nottinghill was one of the worst slums in London, it cost just 75p to rent a 2 room apartment for 8 people in the 1940s and if rent was not paid, repairs were not done leading to run down homes 

1950s - rent control was abolished which only increased gentrification, people that couldnt afford the £2 a month rent were offered £300 for their properties and housed in council flats with hot water and bathrooms, this caused an increase in middle class ownership where in 1960s the houses were selling for £11,000 

Now - the same house is now worth £2 million, the Portland Arms is now a beauty spar and there is a gallery and wine bar, however the north end of the street wasnt gentrified, Winterbourne house and Nottingwood house are worth £340,000 housing the lowest 5% of the coutries earners where there are £3.5 million properties just up the road 

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What is property-led regeneration?

property-led regeneration - a government initiative where a board is set up, this scheme uses publc money and doesnt need clearing with councils, in the 1980s it was set up using £4 billion of public money with the aim of making 4 or 5 times more but only managed £12 billion 

London Docklands Development Commision 

- 760 hectares of derelict land was bought, 150 hectares kept as open space and 200,000 trees planted, similarly in Clarence Dock Regeneration scheme in Leeds 1.5million visitors are attracted a year 

- 27,000 businesses including the stock exchange, limehouse ITV studios, the Guardian and the Daily Telegraph have come to the area as well as  £7.7 billion of private investment has created a separation of residents 

- 22,000 new homes were built as well as 10,000 refurbished doubled the resident population and increased home ownership from 4% to 40% but luxury developments were favoured 

- in the area of the Shadwell Basin, 40% of the new homes built were intended to be affordable and £1.5 million was spent on an IT centre which trains unemployed 16-18 year olds 

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What is a city challenge partnership?

city challenge partnership - the local council makes bids to the national government who give grants to improve the inner city, local people are involved and there is a bigger focus on social improvements 


- slum clearance in the 1960s left crescent shaped apartment blocks, the oil crisis and poor design resulted in cold and damp, vermin infested dwellings, there were 5,500 homes and 98% were council owned, the partnership was formed in 1992 and was a £37.5 million improvement package 

- the Birley Fields Business Park was built which create £400 million of investments, unemployment consequently fell from 32% in 1989 to 6% in 2010

- moss side sports and leisure complex was built in time for the 2002 commonwealth games as well as the zion centre and hulme park

- population increased between 1992 and 2002 by 3.3% whereas the city as a whole grew 0.2%, 3,000 new homes were created, 600 were built from scratch and 400 were refurbished 

- only affluent workers seem to be employed as unemployment is still high in comparison to the rest of Manchester, it is still poor, house prices are unaffordable and there is 50% of the population in social housing 

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What is a sustainable community?

 sustainable communities - an area that meets the needs of the current population without compromising resources that will be needed in future generations 

Greenwich Millenium Village is in central London on the Eastern side of the Greenwich Peninsula

Aims - In 1997 the greater london agency bought the land, with aims of making 20% affordable housing, safeguarding green spaces and creating a sense of community

buildings - take advantage of sun whilst protected from the cold winds, made of recyclable aluminium and cedar wood from sustainable woodlands

homes - use 80% less energy, 20% less water and have whole house ventilation as well as energy efficient lighting and heat recovery systems

transport - North Greenwich Station has the Jubilee line which gets to Canary Wharf in 2 minutes and the east end in 20 minutes, there is also a ferry from the North Greenwic Pier to the Thames Clipper and theres a cable car to the royal docks 

- the environment has also improved, 50 acres are parkland, 4 acres is dedicated to the wetland freshwater ecology park where the Lewisham Black poplar was reintroduced 

- it has transformed the old gas works as a brownfield site, there are over 1,000 flats in 2010 as well as a village square however there is a wealthier population which limits employment opportunities, it is expensive to live there £475,000 for a 2 bed flat which is unaffordable, the council scrapped the affordable housing scheme and is distant from the rest of Greenwich 

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How is waste managed?

- MEDCs produce 5 times more waste than LEDCs, 75% of the cost of landfill is through transport, 25,000 casual waste pickers in Bangalor, the main problems of waste are volume and disposal 

landfill - is burying rubbish, 85% of Uk waste goes to landfill, it is cheap and provides resources e.g Smoke Mountain in the Phillipines is home to 10,000 families, however it releases CO2 and methane, blight and causes water contamination, congestion and recyclables tend to go to waste. solutions include covering landfill and capturing gas to use as biofuel like in Mumbai, in the Uk we have a landfill tax of £72 per tonne (2014)

energy recovery - waste is burned which reduces the need for fossil fuels, in Sheffield the ERF (energy recovery facility) fuels 140 buildings and contributes 17MW to the national grid, only 15% of waste goes to landfill but there are problems with health, smell, noise and emissions but these are said to be balanced 

composting - 38% of Uk waste contains organic material, composting can be small or large scale, can create biogas, in Leeds compost is used to condition soil, decreases waste going to landfill and biogas is renewable but this needs good management 

reduce, reuse, recycle - reducing packaging, reusing waste or making new products or materials from waste, in germany there is a glass bottle deposit, the Uk has a 5p bag charge, recycling is quicker and you can reuse and recycle many times which reduces a demand for raw materials and landfill but it relies on individuals, Berkshire created points system creating a 35% uptake in recycle, 55% of paper from the Uk was sent to China in 2014 

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Waste Management Case Studies

Curitiba - in Southern Brazil where favelas are the main homes as a result of rapid population growth from 500,000 in 1965 to over 1 million now, has the Green Exchange where in 1990 2/3 of household waste was recycled, the system employes undesirables and the profit is reinvested in society, for every 4kg of waste collectors are given 1kg of food or bus tickets, this costs the same as landfill but involves 30,000 from 52 communities

Cairo - the Zabbaleen (a christian group) were isolated from society and so began collecting peoples rubbish, as late as the 1980s this was the only form of waste collection, now only 10% is dumped outside of the city 

Bradford - 33% of waste is recylced or composted, the rest goes to landfill, promoted reusing through the real nappy scheme and the Bradford and Calderdale partnership meant economies of scale was achieved 

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