Geography - Globalisation

Types of Globalisation - 1

Economic Globalisation:

  • The growth of TNCs accelarated the cross border exchanges.
  • ICT supports the growth of complex spatial division of labour.
  • The growth online purchasing.

Social Globalisation:

  • International immigration has creaed extensive family networks across national borders.
  • Improved life expectancy and litracy levels.
  • Social interconnectives has grown through social media.
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Types of Globalisation - 2

Political Globalisation:

  • The growth of trading blocs reduces the amount of trading tariffs and restrictions.
  • Global concerns such as free trade, crunch credits and global responces to crisis.
  • The World Bank, IMF and WTO work internationally to harmonise national economics.

Cultural Globalisation:

  • Western cultural traits come to dominate in some territories.
  • Globalisation and hybridisation are a consequence of old local cultur merging with new global influences.
  • The circulation of information has accelarated thanks to 24 hour reporting.
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Network Flows - 1

Capital:

  • Major capital flows are through the world's stock markets on a global sacle.
  • In 2013 the volume of these foreign exchange transactions reached US$ 5 trillion per day.

Commodities:

  • Valuable raw materials have always been traded between nations.
  • Flows of manufactured goods have multiplied in size in the recent years, especially due to low production costs in countries such as China.

Information:

  • The internet has brought real time communication between long distance places.
  • Social networks have increased dreamatically in size.
  • On demand TV has increased datausage further.
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Network Flows - 2

Tourists:

  • Budget airlnes have brought an increase in air travel with manageable budget.
  • Increasing number of people from developing countries are also traveling abroad as well.

Migrants:

  • The permenant movement of people still faces the greatest number of obstecles due to governmental restrictions world wide.
  • As a result most governments try to embrace trade but attempt to ressit migrant flows.
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Trade and Transport in the 19th Century

Steam Power:

  • In the 1800s Britain became the leading world power using steam power.
  • Steam ships and trans moved goods and armies much faster.

Railways:

  • In the 1800s, railway networks expanded globally.
  • Even today railway building remains a priority for gevernments.

Jet Aircrafts:

  • The intercontinental Boeing 747 in the 1960s made international traver much more common.
  • The expansin of the cheaper airlines has allowed more people to be able to travel.

Container Shipping;

  • About 200 million individual container movements take place each year.
  • Shipping is named as the backbone of the global economy since the 1950s.
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Case Study: easyjet

  • Founded in 1995.
  • Most major European cities can now be navigated by easyjets cheap flight networks.
  • Easyjet started with just 2 airctafts and by 2014 the company owns about 200 aeroplans.
  • In 1995 it carried around 30,000 passengers and in 2014 that has increased to about 65 million passengers.
  • The company now also has many international flights to places such as Egypt, Morocco and Turkey.
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