AQA A level Geography

Unit 3 AQA geography, with modules:

  • Plate tectonics and associated hazards
  • weather and climate and associated hazards
  • World cities
  • Contemporary conflicts and challenges
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  • Created by: alex
  • Created on: 05-06-13 16:15

Plate tectonics - Plate Movement

Earth Structure

Crust (seperated from mantle by the Moho discontinuity):

  • Oceanic crust (sima) consisting of Basalt 6-10km thick
  • Continental (sial) consisting of granite 30-70km thick


  • Composed of silicate rocks, rich in iron and magnesium
  • The Lithosphere consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle 
  • The Asthenosphere is semi molten below the lithosphere
  • extends to 2900km  and the temperature may reach 5000oC


  • Inner core is a solid 
  • Outer core is semi molten
  • Contains iron and nickel
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Plate tectonics - Plate Movement

Plate Tectonics Theory

  • 1620 - Francis Bacon noted Jigsaw fit of east America and west Africa.
  • 1912 - Alfred Wegner theory of supercontinental drift - Pangea

Wegner's evidence:

  • Biology - mesosaurus remains (reptile permian times) only found in South Africa and Brazil.
  • Geology - similar type, age, structure and formation in the Appalachian Mountains in the USA correspond with northwestern European mountains. 
  • Climatology - coal is found beneath the Antarctic, evidence of glaciation in Brazil
  • Observational - shapes of countries appear to 'fit' one another 

New evidence to support this theory:

  • Discovery and study of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, such as by Ewing in 1948
  • Studies of Paleomagnetism in the 1950s - iron in lava aligns with the earths magnetic field which reverses periodically (171 reversals over 76 million years) and alternations in alignment are almost symmetrical either side of the mid Atlantic Ridge.
  • Sea Floor Spreading - 1962 Hess confirmed newest rocks located at centre of the ocean, the Atlantic is widening by 5cm per year.
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Plate tectonics - Plate Movement

Plate Margins

  • Constructive - new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other
  • Destructive - whereby plates converge to generate or destroy crust
  • Conservative - crust is neither produced nor destroyed as plates slide past each other

Constructive Margins:

  • Located over rising convection currents causing crust to form
  • Creates Mid Ocean Ridges (e.g. mid Atlantic ridge) under oceanic crust 
  • Creates Rift Valleys (e.g. African Rift Valley) under continental crust
  • Can cause both earthquakes (2008 Iceland earthquake magnitude 6.3) and volcanoes (surtsey of 1963) 

Destructive Margins:

  • Oceanic/continental - denser oceanic crust is subducted forming a deep sea trench  (Peru/Chile) and young fold mountains (Andes) e.g. Nazca subducted under S American
  • Oceanic/oceanic - denser will be subducted, Island arcs created e.g. Japan
  • Continental/continental - orogenesis causing earthquakes (e.g. Himalayas)
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Variations in volcanic activity


  • Balsatic lava is created at constructive margins with a low viscosity, runny, with a low silica content
  • Andestic lava and Rhyolitic lavas are found at destructive margins, very viscous with a high silica content, associated with explosive eruptions

Type of volcano:

  • Dome volcano - destructive, high viscosity, steep sides, rhyolitic/andesitic, e.g. Puy de Dome, France
  • Caldera - destructive, high viscosity, wide circular crator, rhyolitic/andesitic e.g. Aira, Japan
  • Shield - constructive or hotspots, low viscosity, balsatic, e.g. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
  • Fissure - constructive, low viscosity, linear vent, balsatic e.g. Laki fissure system, Iceland

Type of volcanic activity:

  • Intrusive - beneath the surface of the earth, where molten rock is injected into the crust
  • Extrusive - where molten rocks reach the surface of the earth
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Minor Forms of Extrusive Activity


  • groundwater is heated to above boiling point by magma deep in the crust
  • the hot water becomes pressurised and forces its way to the surface, flashing into steam
  • cycle is regular according to underground network of caves - e.g. Old Faithful (65 mins)

Hot springs:

  • groundwater is constantly heated but not boiled, by hot rocks beneath the surface
  • have a high mineral content because the hot water can hold a lot of dissolved solids
  • e.g. Bath and Blue Lagoon, Iceland

Boiling Mud:

  • heated water mixes with surface deposits, sometimes brightly coloured due to iron and sulfur rich minerale, e.g. North Island, New Zealand


  • small volcanic areas that emit sulfurous gases, often forming a yellow deposit
  • fumeroles are similar but produce other gases such as hydrogen chloride
  • e.g. Rotorua, New Zealand
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Volcanic Impacts

Primary effects:

  • Tephra - solid material ejected from the volcano
  • Pyroclastic Flows - gas and tephra 
  • Lava - hot molten magma reaching the surface
  • Gases - carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulphur dioxide and chlorine

Secondary effects:

  • Lahars - volcanic mud flows
  • Flooding - melting ice caps and glaciers
  • Tsunamis - giant sea waves caused by landslides etc
  • Volcanic landslides
  • Climate Change - ash and volcanic debris can affect local and global temperatures
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Intrusive Landforms


  • steep, sheet like vertical intrusions
  • often cut across rock bedding and form low ridges 
  • e.g. Isle of Arran, Kildonan shore 


  • A horizontal intrusion with sheets of igneus rock  
  • e.g. Great Whin Sill 


  • when magma cools and solidifies  it forces the overlying strata into a dome or small hill
  • e.g. Eildon Hills


  • large chambers of magma cool underground forming domes of igneous rock
  • e.g. Sierra Nevada in US is an exposed Batholith 
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Case Studies

Nevado Del Ruiz, Colombia

  • 1985
  • phreatic eruption and pyrochlastic flow, four major lahars
  • Armero, 29,000 reduced to 7,000
  • $7.7 billion
  • Governmental Prepardness System, 1993 Galeras local authorities refused to issue warnings
  • Less than 3% of Mt St Helens volcanic debris

Mount St Helens

  • 1980
  • 57 fatalities
  • $2.2 million on ash removal -took 10 weeks
  • monitored through seismometers and barometers, Lake level gauges on spirit lake
  • Juan de fuca plate under North American
  • $1 billion in damage
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Plate tectonics - Vulcanicity

Case Studies

Lake Nyos

  • 1986
  • 'lake overturn' releasing carbon dioxide (1.6 million tonnes)
  • 1700 suffocated

Lusi - Indonesian Mud Volcano

  • debated whether caused due to drilling exploring for gas
  • cost Indonesia $3.7 billion
  • 10,000 forced from their homes
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Plate tectonics - Seismicity

Causes of Earthquakes

  • Caused by tension that builds up during all three types of plate margin
  • The point of pressure release is the focus
  • Immediately above the focus at the earths surface is the epicentre
  • Shallow earthquakes (0-70km) cause the most damage, with 75% of energy released
  • Intermediate and deep earthquakes have much less affect on the surface
  • Easrthquakes originate along faults 
  • Other possible caused of earthquakes include, reactivation of old fault lines (e.g. Lincolnshire 2008),subsidence as a result of deep mining and pressure on surface rocks from water in large reservoirs

Seismic Waves

  • P waves - can travel through solids and liquid, fastest seismic wave
  • S waves - can travel through solids, shearing effect causes damage
  • Surface waves - travel more slowly than P and S. Love waves can only travel through solids (shearing effect). Rayleigh waves can travel through solids and liquids. 
  • Only P waves through liquid outer core and solid inner core 
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Plate tectonics - Seismicity

Earthquake Measurement

The Richter Scale

  • logarithmic - measures the magnitude
  • each value on the scale represents about 30 times more energy released than the previous value
  • Major earthquakes are above 7

The Mercalli Scale 

  • measures the impacts of an earthquake
  • using observations of an event
  • between 1 and 12

Moment Magnitude Scale

  • MMS 
  • measures amount of energy released
  • logarithmic
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Plate tectonics - Seismicity

Impact of Earthquakes

Primary effects:

  • Ground shaking 

Secondary effects:

  • Soil liquefaction - where the soil loses mechanical structure and behaves like a liquid e.g. 1964 Niigata
  • Landslides/avalanches
  • Collapse of buildings/transport systems
  • Destruction of water, gas and electricity provisions
  • Fires - ruptured gas mains and fallen electricity lines
  • Flooding - dam bursts, ground water mains burst
  • Disease and food shortages
  • Tsunamis


  • effect depends on height of wave, distance travelled, length of event, warning, population density
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Plate tectonics - Seismicity

Case Studies


  • North - West India 2001
  • Collison boundary/transform fault
  • Indian/Eurasian plate
  • 7.6 on Richter scale
  • 20,000 deaths
  • destroyed 60% of food and water
  • 400,000 homes destroyed
  • $5.5 billion


  • Los Angeles, California 1994 - Blind thrust fault
  • Pacific and North American Plate
  • 6.7 on Richter scale 
  • 61 deaths
  • fires and floods and 11 major roads damages
  • cost $40 billion
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World Cities - World Cities

The Global Pattern

  • Almost 50% of the worlds population live in towns and cities
  • The number of urban dwellers is highest in Asia with 1.4 billion people living in towns and cities - 40% of the population
  • Millionaire cities - more than 1 million people, India and China have the most
  • Megacities - those with more than 10 million people - there are 20 (15 in developing)
  • World cities - those that have great influence on a global scale, due to financial status and 
  • worldwide commercial power e.g. New York, London and Tokyo 
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


  • the growth in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns/cities as opposed to rural areas.
  • Mainly caused by rural -urban migration

Push factors 

  • Changes in climate, such as desertification
  • In developing countries, agricultural production may suffer
  • Conflict and civil war may cause many to migrate
  • Natural disasters
  • Changes in land use
  • Mechanisation of agriculture

Pull factors

  • More jobs available in urban areas
  • Better paid jobs
  • Family and friends may live in a city along with specific communities
  • Perception of a better quality of life
  • Increased services/infrastructure 
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Impacts on Urban Areas

  • Increased demand for space, resources and services
  • Lack of affordable housing
  • Increase in homelessness
  • slums, favelas and shanty towns built
  • High risk of disease etc
  • Inequality causes high social problems such as crime and vandalism
  • High competition for formal sector and rise in low wages, poor conditions and low security
  • Informal sector grows
  • Rapid population growth due to natural increase or rural - urban migration may cause pressure on roads/railways etc, with congestion causing air pollution

Management of Urbanisation

  • Building new housing to replace slums
  • Improving services in slums
  • Redeveloping areas into independant townships e.g. Dharavi, Mumbai
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Case Study: Dharavi, Mumbai, India

  • Originally a fishing village - became a port, encouraging development
  • Most densely populated city in the world  - estimated population 2020 at over 25 million
  • 80% of population live on less than $2 a day
  • Dharavi - known for pottery, textiles, tanneries, recycling, estimated 15000 single room factories
  • Annual turnover of Dharavi estimated at US$650 million to US$1 billion
  • One toilet for up to 1500 residents
  • Mehta proposal for 5 areas, any settled for 5 years would get free housing (225 sq feet)
  • finalised plans in 2004 - cost $2.1 billion, stalemate due to uncertanity

Case Study: Bamako, Mali

  • 1884 - 2500 inhabitants, 2009 - 1.8 million inhabitants
  • Poverty, political instability, food security problems and scarcity of employment in rural
  • 5,000 beggars, new districts emerging causing conflict, crime, pollution
  • welcome shelters - training for basic trades, 500 literacy and training programme 
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


  • The process of population movement (and increasingly industry and retail) from the central areas of cities to the outskirts
  • The Burgess Model - more suburbs are added so older suburbs aren't on the outskirts
  • Hoyt Sector Model - wealthy move to outskirts and into poorer suburbs to renervate housing

Push Factors

  • Poor quality housing in centres, Slum clearance as develops, building of housing  outskirts
  • Deindustrialisation in city centres causes unemployment
  • Urban decline, spiral of deprivation etc
  • Stressful inner city life, pollution, congestion, crime etc

Pull Factors 

  • More relaxed planning laws for spacious green environments
  • Improvements in public transport, communications,infrastructure, increasing car ownership
  • More jobs, services as business move to suburbs due to cheaper rents
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Impacts on City Centre

  • Derelict buildings, urban decline
  • Higher levels of unemployment, lower standards of living and poverty
  • Economic and ethnic segregation
  • Increased congestion and pollution etc

Impacts on Suburbs

  • New housing estates affecting local environment and wildlife habitats
  • Increased concrete etc can lead to higher risk of flooding
  • Increased number of cars causing pollution and congestion
  • Out of town shopping centres
  • House prices increase - unaffordable for rural communities
  • Proffessional middle classes, with fewer farm workers and more retired people
  • Possible closure/opening of local services
  • 'Nimby-ist' attitudes - environmental lobbying etc
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Managing the Impacts

  • Redevelopment schemes such as using brownfield sites in the city centre
  • Greenbelt labelling to protect the countryside areas
  • Schemes to reduce traffic congestion in the city centre

Case Study: Ballawattleworth estate, Peel (Isle of Man)

  • Impact on local primary and secondary school - Queen Elizabeth II High - whereby increases in pupil number and class sizes
  • Both schools had to expand to prefabricated accomodation before more permanent built
  • High school - new dining facilities, additional classrooms and a new KS5 centre
  • New swimming pool, increased pressure on services
  • Busy Bears Nursery and New Highwayman public house
  • Mix of apartments, two bedroom semi detached and executive style homes
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Case Study: Surbiton, London

  • People moved due to good transport links, good quality housing, has plenty of shops and restaurants, good schools and has parks, popular with families
  • Problems - high car ownership (70%)  causing congestion, in London travel zone 6 causing expensive fares and higher car usage (40%) for commuting, high housing prices 406k
  • Managing the problems - 2009 Improvement Strategy for Surbiton Town Centre. widening roads and set delivery times for local shops
  • Surbiton Neighbourhood Committee set up
  • Campaign to reclassify Surbiton station as travel zone 5
  • Secure bicycle storage units installed and improvement of pedestrian access
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes

Counter Urbanisation

  • The migration of people from major urban areas to smaller towns, villages or rural areas - often 'leapfrogging' the green belt.

Impacts on rural areas

  • Some services see an increase in business due to higher disposable incomes
  • Existing housing improved as farm buildings are renovated and upgraded
  • If families move, availability of services such as schools
  • Decline of services due to commuters
  • Residents may move out the area due to unemployment and high prices
  • Rural roads and infrastructure may be unable to deal with congestion

Management of Problems

  • In some areas, development only allowed if they're in keeping with the area
  • Mobile services that reach rural areas
  • Some areas there are local occupancy clauses on houses e.g. Cumbria low cost houses can only be bought by people who have lived in the area for three years
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes


Case Study: St Ives, Cambridgeshire

  • Good road access and rail to Cambridge and London
  • Traffic congestion is a problem
  • Average price rose from 130k to 291k in ten years
  • St Ives is on the Great River Ouse, developments built on floodplain, 1000 properties at risk from a 1 in a 100 year event
  • More shops and services such as clothes and antiques
  • Changed population structure from ageing to youthful - pressure on schools and more school, pre school and primary school places are needed

Management strategies

  • 2010 200 new homes, 75 affordable housing aimed at those with lower incomes
  • plands to expand primary school to make 240 more places
  • 2007 £8.8 million flood protection works
  • £116 million guided busway to reduce congestion
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes

Re Urbanisation

  • The movement of people back into urban areas, particularly the inner city or even the central business district (CBD) itself. Often asscociated with urban regeneration schemes or gentrification

Push Factors

  • Lack of jobs in some rural or suburban areas
  • Rural areas provide fewer leisure or entertainment facilities e.g. nightlife
  • counter urbanisation may cause high house prices in rural areas

Pull Factors

  • New developments may occur due to availability of brownfield sites left derelict due to suburbanisation, counter urbanisation and deindustrialisation
  • Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
  • Universities based in inner city areas
  • Young single people often want to live close to work
  • Once re urbanisation has started it tends to continue.
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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes

Re- Urbanisation

Impacts on the City Centre

  • New shops and services open boosting the economy
  • Jobs are created, reducing crime
  • Tourism may increase
  • Local state schools may benefit from increasing amounts of student
  • Original residents may have to move to cheaper areas of the city
  • Tension between original residents and new residents leading to crime/violence
  • Jobs may not be accessible to original residents
  • New shops may be too expensive ot not stock the original products, residents may have to go elswhere to shop

Impact Management

  • Projects can include guarantees to bring affordable housing to an area e.g. In Camden, London
  • Charitable projects aiming to improve the skills of the existing population to increase employment levels e.g. City Gateway in the London Docklands

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World Cities - Contemporary Urbanisation Processes

Re urbanisation

Case Study: Notting Hill, London

  • Victorian times -rough working class area
  • 1976 riot during the carnival
  • over past 30 years synonomous with gentrification
  • rocketing property prices and estate agents coining names like 'Hillgate Village'
  • Period houses on Kensington Road at £4 million
  • Trendy eating places such as Feng Suishi
  • Electric cinema opened in 2001 due to affluence
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World Cities - Urban Decline and Regeneration

Urban Decline

  • Where a decrease in economic activity in an urban area causes it to become rundown
  • There is often a pattern to the decline: - Decline in Industry - Increase in Unemployment - Shops and Services Decline - Physical Environment Declines
  • Three process to regenerate; gentrification, partnership schemes, property led regeneration schemes

Case Study: Property Led Regeneration - LDDC 1981 - 1996

  • UDCs set up in 1970s and 1980s
  • London Docklands had problems with globalisation, increased mechanisation and containerisation
  • 1981 80% of people lived in poor quality high rise council flats, 30% unfit for habitation
  • Physical - 160,000 trees planted, 17 conservation areas, Thames barrier park
  • Social  - 8000 homes refurbished, ownership homes from 5% to 40%, post 16 and technology college constructed, marina for watersports, 120,000 new jobs created
  • Economic - Isle of Dogs Enterprise zone, London City Airport, Docklands Light Railway (DLR)
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World Cities - Urban Decline and Regeneration

Urban Regeneration

Case Study: Partnership Scheme - Hulme City Challenge 1992

  • cleared for redevelopment in 1960s after being overcrowded and poor
  • Early 1990s many families moved out of Hulme , flats unlivable, poor, unemployment, crime
  • £37.5 million regeneration package, bringing together The Guinness Trust, Bellway Homes, Manchester City Council
  • Tower blocks demolished, with replacement of a mixture of council owned and private
  • Main shopping area refurbished including a supermarket
  • Zion centre created
  • Business park built at Birley Fields to encourage companies such as Colgate ltd
  • from 1997 to 2002 Hulme recieved £400 million of private and public investment
  • Unemployment fell from 32% in 1989 to 6% in 2010
  • Still poor area - 47.5% in social housing
  • House prices increased making it unaffordable for local people
  • Unemployment still high compared to the rest of Manchester
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World Cities - Urban Decline and Regeneration

Urban Regeneration

Case Study: Sustainable Communities - Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV)

  • £200 million by English Partnerships
  • Largest gasworks in europe redeveloped
  • Environmentally friendly 
  • 2008 - 1095 homes and a village square had been built, further 1843 homes planned
  • 'yuppie village'
  • few families
  • high rents and flat prices
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World Cities - Retailing and Other Services

Decentralisation of Retailing


  • Increasing public dissatisfaction with quality and accessibility of traditional CBD shopping areas - congestion/vandalism etc
  • Improvements in transport infrastructure have made out of town shopping centres accessable
  • Land prices are cheaper out of town, allows developers room for expansion
  • Use brownfield sites e.g. meadowhall
  • Increased car ownership

Impacts on City Centres

  • loss of retail function, areas of 'discarrd', rundown centres seem dangerous discouraging investment
  • Descrease in numbers using services forcing restaurants etc to close
  • May attempt to 'fight-back'
  • Improvements by local authorities to encourage investment such as pedestrian zones and organising events
  • congestion and pollution may decrease
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World Cities - Retailing and Other Services

Decentralisation of Retailing

Impact on Rural -Urban fringe

  • Noise pollution, jobs in short term, add to congestion
  • air pollution
  • Create jobs for those living in the suburbs
  • Often built on brownfield sites 
  • Houses may increase in value near the shopping centres

Case Study: The Trafford Centre

  • Opened 1998
  • 5.5 million people, 10% of the population live within 45 minutes drive
  • 18 lane bowling alley, 20 screen cinema complex
  • 11,000 free car parking spaces
  • 120 buses every hour
  • Congestion and pollution
  • Altrincham local town has suffered - 37% of shops were vacant in 2010
  • 2011 Altrincham Town Centre Action Plan
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World Cities - Retailing and Other Services

Redevelopment of Urban Centres

Strategies for redevelopment

  • More attractive shopping areas - pedestrian zones, flower beds etc, pavements improved
  • New shopping malls or renovating old ones
  • Opening street markets to improve the atmosphere
  • Improving public transport to decrease congestion e.g. park and ride
  • Installing CCTV, security alarms and street lighting
  • Late night and sunday shopping
  • Conserving historic buildings - attracting tourism

Other functions to revive CBD

  • More cafes bars and entertainment venues
  • Free cultural entertainment e.g. Liverpool light night
  • Flagship attractions
  • Theme areas such as gay village in Manchester - attracting tourists also
  • More residential property, more people likely to use the facilities
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World Cities - Retailing and Other Services

Redeveloping Urban Areas

Case Study: Manchester City Centre

  • 'fight back' to remain competitive
  • Arndale centre redeveloped after 1996 IRA bombing
  • Leisure facilities - the printworks including multi screen cinema (with IMAX screen) numerous bars, clubs, restaurants and Hard Rock Cafe
  • Public spaces - Piccadily gardens and exchange square, shambles square contains two of the city centre's oldest buildings
  • Christmas markets and annual Spinningfields ice rink 'canary wharf of the North'
  • 'gay village' hosts annual Gay Pride and a large Chinatown
  • Northern Quarter central districts creative hub - numerous bars and live music venues


  • Between 2003 and 2009 became 3rd popular tourist destination in the uk, contributing £5 billion to the economy each year
  • retail in the city centre made an extra £300 million a year
  • 2001 - 16% on low incomes couldn't afford to use the new facilities
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World Cities - Sustainability Issues in Urban Area

Waste Management

  • The average person in the UK produces 517kg of household waste every year

Reduction - Done by individuals and buisness e.g. Tesco Bag for Life, design also and packaging for example 'lightweighting' of beverage cans 

Reuse - Reusing materials easier on individual level, only certain products on a large scale. For example in Germany dirinks companies charge a deposit which customers get back when they return it to a designated collection point

Recycle - Relies on individuals, energy saving for one bottle can power a computer for 25 minutes

Recover - Energy recovery is achieved through incineration and composting of biomass which produce biogas

Disposal - UK equates with landfill, emits methane and threatens groundwater supplies and rivers

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World Cities - Sustainability Issues in Urban Area

Waste Management

Case Study: The Zabbaleen People, Cairo, Egypt

  • Informal sector by Zabbaleen people
  • gather waste for a small fee and then sort in 'garbage city'
  • recycled up to 90%
  • plastics sold for profit, food scraps for animals, 

Case study: Curitiba, Brazil - waste management

  • Green exchange - rubbish seperated and collected in exchange for food or bus tickets
  • Helps 30,000 families move 300 tonnes of waste a year
  • 2/3 rubbish recycled
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World Cities - Sustainability Issues in Urban Area

Transport and Its Management

Schemes to make transport more sustainable:

  • Road schemes - bus lanes, cycle lanes, high occupancy vehicle lanes encouraging car sharing
  • Traffic management - bypasses, park and ride schemes etc
  • Integrating transport systems - coordinating public transport, accesible to pedestrians and cyclists, e.g. Tempe, Arizona, buses have bike racks
  • Low carbon vehicles - public transport that run on renewable energy sources (e.g. hydrogen, hybrid, electric), low carbon vehicles improve air quality.

Case study: Curitiba, Brazil

  • Jaime lerner architect, later became mayor
  • bus lanes along main roads, red buses -express, orange - outlying settlements, means little congestion
  • buses 500 times cheaper than using car
  • pre paid bus fairs reduce queing times, extra wide doors, wheelchair accessible
  • reduces travel times by 1/3 - bus drivers paid in miles covered not how many use bus.
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Conflicts - Geographical Basis

Nature and Origin of Conflict

  • Conflict - ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people

Causes of conflict

  • Identity - Nationalism, Regionalism, Localism, Ethnicity and Culture
  • Territory
  • Ideology

Expression of conflict

  • Non-violent - through debate, protest or petition
  • Political Activity - such as western democracy
  • Terrorism 
  • Insurrection - guerrilla tactics e.g. IRA
  • War - organised violent conflict
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Conflicts - Local Resources Conflicts


  • Market processes - ability to pay takes precedance over local and national concerns, no right to appeal. 
  • Planning processes - attempt to provide a means by which planners can listen to the local community, listen to organisation responsible and ultimately have control over the development concerned. Expensive and time consuming

Case Study: Newbury Bypass

  • 1984 UK governments Department of Transport announced recommendation
  • Objections - local people thought that traffic problems needed other methods to solve problems, environmental concerns (crossed 3 SSSIs, 6 county wildlife sites, nature reserve, 10,000 trees felled, habitats of dormouse destroyed), crossed two civil war battle sites and 12 archaeological sites.
  • Campaigns against - Society for the Prevention of the Western Bypass locally, Third Battle of Newbury Group raised awareness nationally and formal complaint to EU lack of EIA 1994-1966 hundreds of people over 30 camps, February biggest anti road protest of 8000
  • Supporters - newbury bypass supporters association, four local councils, local MP
  • Public Inquiry and review, work began 1996, security costs of £30 million, 900 arrested
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Conflicts - Impact of an International Conflict

Case Study: Gaza and the West Bank

  • 1947 UN proposal to divide Palestine into 1949 three states of Israel, Gaza, West Bank
  • 1960s Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO)
  • 1967 Israel invaded and seized control of West Bank and Gaza
  • 1987 First Intifada - 1993 peace talks 
  • 2000-2005 Second Intifada
  • 2006 Hamas won elections and refused to recognise Israel

Main issues

  • Control of Jeruselem
  • Location of certain settlements
  • Rights of Palestinian refugees and Freedom of movement of Palestinian people


  • Social -1948-1997 10,000 - 50,000 civilian deaths, 4 million refugees, rights, cultural losses
  • Economic - trillions of US$ since 1948, hindered growth, 40% palestinian unemployment
  • Environmental - military structures damaged land, overgrazing and desertification, polluted due to explosions, 80,000m3 of sewage into Mediterranean sea.
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Conflicts - Challenge of Multicultural Societies

Multicultural Societies

  • 19th Century - Jews escaping the pogroms, Irish escaping the famine 1846-50
  • Early 20th Century - 1930s/40s Jews and Poles escaping fascism, 1948-60s Carribean workers invited to help rebuild post war britain (NHS), 1950s - 1960s, many arrived from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to escape poverty
  • Late 20th Century - 1970s Ugandan East African Asians escaping persecution, 1975 vietnamese immigration at the end of the Vietnam war, 1980s -90s Eastern European immigration escaping unrest in Romania and former Yugoslavia.
  • 21st Century- 2000 onwards Eastern Europe economic migration due to enlarging of the EU.

Geographical Distribution

  • Uneven, mainly major urban areas particularly London with 1.8 million migrants
  • Higher proportion of people of Pakistani origin in Yorkshire and Humberside and West Midlands (2.9%)
  • Leicester has highest proportion of Indian origin (25.7%)
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Conflicts - Challenge of Multicultural Societies

Issues Related to Multicultural Societies

  • Religion - migrants may wish to adhere to their own religious calendars and practices; this can cause friction with employers, colleagues and authorities
  • Language - difficulty in finding employment and restriction of educational opportunities
  • Housing - generally poor upon arrival, leads to a concentration of migrants in poorer areas
  • Economic issues - discrimination, racism, prejudice, accusations of taking local jobs
  • Healthcare - poor immunization levels etc.

Case Study: Bradford

  • 1976 24 arrested during confrontation with NF march
  • 1977 Asian Youth Movement 'Here to Stay, Here to Fight'
  • 1981 Trial of the Bradford 12: conspiracy of petrol bombs, won their case
  • 1981 Bradford Council of Mosques set up
  • Mid 1980s focus on religious and cultural issues e.g. campaign for halal meat in schools
  • 2001 bradford riots - two people stabbed, £7m in damage
  • tensions and divisions between communities
  • segregation in Bradford is common
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Conflicts - Separatism Internationally

Nature of Separatism

  • Separatist pressure - pressure by a group of people within one or more countries to achieve greater atonomy, from a central government which they feel alienated.

Reasons for seperatism:

  • Minority language or culture - Basques in northern Spain and south west France
  • Economic imbalances - SNP for an independant scotland 
  • Claims by minority religious groupings - Christian population of southern south Sudan
  • Exploitation of local resource has done little to help locality - Scotland and North Sea Oil
  • State collapse - Yugoslavia into Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Heeezegovina and Macedonia
  • Strengthening of supranational bodies such as the EU - Scotland believes niche markets

Consequences of separatism

  • Maintaining separate cultural identity - Bretons in France
  • Protection of indigenous languages - Welsh, Catalan etc
  • Devolved power - Scottish and Welsh Nationalists
  • Civil Disobediance - Orange revolution in Ukraine
  • Terrorist violence - Basque separatists, Irish Repblican Army etc
  • Civil War - Tamil Tigers in Sri Lankan Civil War

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Conflicts - Separatism Internationally

Case study: Basque Country

  • Basque language Euskara, suppressed for over 40 years under Franco until 1975
  • 1959 ETA national political organisation
  • 1960s war on the spanish state
  • 1979 government referendum was massive support for autonomy of Baque region and parliament created but continued attacks alienated Spaniards
  • 2000 Hundreds of thousands marched in Madrid in dissaproval of ETAs violence
  • 800 killings attributed to group
  • 2006 permanent ceasefire announced, later in year bomb in car called off peace talks 
  • 2009 attacks after arrest of Basque politicians blamed on ETA
  • 2010 ETA declares new ceasefire.
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Conflicts - The Challenge of Global Poverty

The Global Distribution of Poverty

  • Unevenly distributed
  • 1.4 billion survive on less than $1.25 a day, in sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 50% of population
  • 15% of world suffers from hunger
  • 30% undernourished in sub-Saharan Africa, 20% in South Asia
  • 10% of sub-Saharan Africas children will die before they reach their first birthday
  • Measuring poverty - International poverty line, Human Poverty Index
  • Between 1981 and 2005 poverty rate has fallen by 25%, but this masks regional variations
  • China's poverty rate fell from 85% to 15.9% or by over 600 million people
  • Excluding China poverty fell by only 10%

Causes of Poverty

  • Bad growing conditions - overgrazing, droughts, low fertility of soil
  • Subsistence farming - vulnerable to extreme weather, no income, droughts result in famine 
  • Overpopulation - strain on resources,etc.
  • War - damage property/crops, refugees etc causing increased poverty
  • Natural hazards - destroying property, floods reduce access to clean water, disease etc
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Conflicts - The Challenge of Global Poverty

Addressing Poverty on a Global Scale

UNs Millenium Development Goals

  • In 2000 UN agreed to 8 goals to be achieved by 2015 to tackle global poverty
  • intend to highlight areas that need to be addresed and give a way of measuring progress
  • success varied
  • 1999-2009 in sub-Saharan Africa 18% increase in primary school enrolment
  • 1990-2010 number of children with stunted growth due to malnutrition increased

The goals:

  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger -reduce by half
  • Achieve universal primary education 
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child mortality - under five by two thirds
  • Improve maternal health
  • Combat HIV/AIS, malaria and other diseases
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Develop a global partnership for development
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Conflicts - The Challenge of Global Poverty

Poverty on Global Scale

'Think Global, Act Local'

  • 'grassroots' or 'bottom up' small scale projects tend to work better at raising living standards in poor areas.
  • emphasis is on using appropriate or intermediate technology which is affordable, available locally and uses local skills and materials to encourage self reliance and self sufficiency

In order to develop countries need security:

  • Economic security - stable and sustainable as well as individuals having a reliable income
  • Food security - reliable sources of sufficient food
  • Health security - protection from diseases and access to health care
  • Personality, community and political security involves being protected from violence, crime and human rights abuses

Cant develop without security -example low economic security stops investment in development

Can't get security without develpment - low level of development prevents economy growing

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Conflicts - The Challenge of Global Poverty

Case Study: Afghanistan

  • Due to conflicts low level of development - 2011 GDP $1000 in the UK it was $36600, birth rate is high 2011 average 5.64 children, high levels of gender inequality
  • Due to conflict low level of security - 2008 unemployment (economic) 35%, 29% did not get enough calories (food), 1 doctor for every 5000 people (health), personal security low due to war
  • Can't get security without investing in projects such as hospitals, schools etc. Security providing jobs, health care and education
  • Money can't be invested when personal and political security are so low, no guarantee new infrastructure won't be damaged during conflict
  • May need help from international agencies and other countries

Case Study: Oxfam and appropriate technology

  • Rural Georgia, built and renovated low cost clinics in 27 communities
  • Malawi, Oxfam trains and supports home based carers for those suffering HIV/AIDS
  • India, Oxfam HIV/AIDS programme access to prevention, treatment, care and public awareness
  • Afghanistan runs winter schools helps students catch up - provides materials and teachers
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When i go to print, half of the writing is upside down..

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