GCSE Geography AQA - Population

Includes case studies, basically whole syllabus :) EXPAND ON THEM IN THE EXAM!


World Population

  • Took 100 years to double from 1bn to 2bn (1830-1927), 50 years to double again by 1974
  • World's current population: 7bn
  • Predicted to slow; 9.2bn by 2050, peak 2150 at 10bn
  • Followed by stable growth/natural increase
  • Fastest in developing countries, 86% live in Africa/Asia/South America
  • Slower in developed countries, some countries in NW Europe have 0 growth

Death rate - number of deaths in 1 year per 1000 - no. of deaths/total pop x 1000

Birth rate - number of births in 1 year per 1000 - no of births/total pop x 1000

Natural change - how fast/slow a pop is growing, subracting death from birth rate

Census - pop count in UK every 10 years

Life expectancy - average no. of years a person can expect to live

Infant Mortality - no. of child (under 1) deaths per 1000

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1 - high fluctuating birth & death rates; UK pre-1760; no family planning, war, famine, disease - TRADITIONAL TRIBES

Stage 2 - high birth rates - high infant mortality, poor economy, children for farms & look after parents; falling death rates - improved medicine, improved sanitation, eradication of mosquitos, UK 1760-1880 - agricultural & industrial revolutions, medicine LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES - AFGHANISTAN

Stage 3 - falling birth rates - family planning, economic growth, farming technology, improved education; UK 1880-1940 compulsory education, illegal to child labour MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES - BRAZIL

Stage 4 - low but fluctuating birth rates - family planning, recession may postpone having children, improved education, desire for good lifestyle, improved care for elderly; low death rates - better medicine, higher incomes, better diets MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES - USA, UK

Stage 5 - low birth rates - more gender equality, many women childless; increasing death rates - ageing population SOME DEVELOPED COUNTRIES - ITALY

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Population Pyramids & Problems With Rapid Pop. Gro

Stage 1 - small apex, wide base - no countries

Stage 2 - narrow apex (high death rates), broad base (high birth rates), concave sides, high infant mortality - Afghanistan

Stage 3 - broader apex, narrowing base - Brazil

Stage 4 - broader apex, narrowing base, convex sides, low infant mortality - USA

Stage 5 - death rates low, broad apex, narrow base, not sustainable - Germany

Problems with rapid pop. growth:

  • Poverty - low incomes, social problems, little education & health
  • Food & Health - malunutrition, high infant mortality
  • Education - expensive, only afford for boys
  • Unemployment - most farmers, pushes up birth rates
  • Housing & Basic Services - high pop. puts pressure on housing, electricity, clean water, sanitation
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Other Problems & Population Policies

Environmental problems - overcrowding, congestion, pollution, litter, loss of farmland; rural areas - overgrazing, loss of water, soil erosion, deforestation, desertification, global warming & climate change

Unsustainable population - overcrowded - not enough resources, famine, poor diet, unemployment

Sustainable population - population's growth & development is stable, doesn't threaten success of future generations

Very strong policies - forced abortion, limit no. of children women can have, compulsory sterilisation

Moderate policies - family planning, free contraception, raise age of marriage, tax benefits for small families

Gentle policies - compulsory education, better career prospects for women, better health care, old age pensions

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Ageing Population

More elderly - more dependents; need more pensions to be paid for; most expensive health care; need more services - financial pressure on country

Solutions - increased taxes, raise retirement age, make elderly pay for their needs, encourage more births, allow more immigration

UK: low birth rate - 10.7 per 1000; low fertility rate - 1.66; high life expectancy - 79; 2021 19% of population will be pensioners; 2050 people living up to 120

Causes for ageing populations - falling birth rates - more women working, desire for good standard of living, more traditional to have small family; longer life expectancy - better medical care, education about healthy lifestyle, pensions; dependency ratio - under 15 & over 65;

% under 15 + % over 65 / % 15-64 x 100 =  dependency percentage

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Movement of people from one permanent home to another with intention of staying at least a year - national migration/international migration

Immigrant - someone entering a new country; emigrant - someone leaving their country; net migration - immigration - emigration

Push factors - natural disasters, harsh conditions, unemployment, poor wages, poverty, overpopulation, lack of education, health care, entertainment & social opportunities, political disagreement, civil war

Pull factors - good conditions, unknown hazards, employment, higher wages, higher standard of living, rich mineral deposits, better education & health care, entertainment, tolerance, peace

Positive impacts on:

  • Host country - more labour & skills, cultural mixing, increase birth rate in ageing population, more tax payers, good work ethic - highly motivated
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Migration 2

  • Migrant - higher paid jobs, increase own standard of living, benefits from services e.g. NHS
  • Country of Origin - money sent back to families, transfer of knowledge & skills, bring wealth back, more jobs if unemployment is high

Negative impacts on:

  • Host country - money leaves economy, use up local resources, teachers must help non-english children, tension - ethnic mix
  • Migrants - exploitation, victims of discrimination/violence, separation from families
  • Country of Origin - loss of labour, separation from from relatives, gender inbalance - more men leave, ageing pop as young leave, less taxes
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Afghanistan - Rapid Population Growth

Population - 28.5mn; Birth Rate - 46.2; Death Rate - 20.0; Rate of Pop Growth - 2.6%

Social - poverty, can't raise much from taxes, high infant mortality, expensive to finance education for youthful population, unemployment - nomadic farmers, housing - rural-urban migration

Political - problems to pay public services, public utilities, expensive - in debt, experiencing confict

Environmental - overcrowding, poor housing, congestion, rubbish, open drains, unsupervised factory emissions, overgrazing, overcultivation, soil erosion, deforestation

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Kerala - Population Policies

Kerala - 32mn people living there, 3.4% of India's pop; 819 people per km2, India's lowest pop growth

  • Land reform - give each family small amount of land - discourages large families
  • improving school standards, equality, reducing infanticide, much higher literacy rate than India's average
  • educating benefits of smaller families
  • improving medical health - reduce infant mortality, vaccine programmes
  • allowing maternity leave for first 2 children
  • encouraging higher age of marriage
  • free contraception & advice
  • extra retirement benefits - don't need children to look after them
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China - One Child Policy

Why? - pop becoming too unsustainable in 70s, risk of famine

Aims - stop pop growth, stabilise pop at 1.2bn by 2000

Rules - not marry until late 20s, only one successful pregnancy, sterilised after 1st child, 5/10% salary increase, priority to housing, pensions, education free

Punishments - 10% salary cut, fined, pay education for both children, 2nd child born abroad not allowed to be Chinese citizen

Implementations - couples closely watched by family planning officer, population still growing, couples need permission to try for baby, family planning education - written test, 'Tell Tale', birth permission cards

Problems - women forced abortions as late as 9 months, under pressure from familes, workmates & Granny Police, government have power over private lives, infanticide, spoilt children, 60 million more men than women

Rural areas sometimes exempt, allowed to try again for a boy

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UK & France - Ageing Population

UK - Birth Rate - 10.7 per 1000; Fertility Rate - 1.66; Life Expectancy - 79 years

Less people paying taxes, more people need pensions so need to raise taxes; less independents to care for dependents, could increase retirement age

France - pro-natal policy, encourage people to have childre, prevent ageing population structure, benefits - 3 years paid parental leave, fully paid education, more childrem a women has, earlier she can have pension 

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Polish Migration to UK

Poland joined EU on 1st April 2004 - April 2004 - Dec 2006 370,000 Polish migrants entered UK

Majority of workers - skilled/unskilled/tradesmen, smaller group gap students

Reasons for migration - 18% unemployment in 2005; up to 40% in rural areas; UK only 5%; availability of work, can earn more (4/5 times more), although cost of living is twice as high

How Polish migrants are distributed - highly dispersed, work in rural & urban areas, Herefordshire, Lincolnshire, east Yorkshire

Impact of migration - contributed £2.5bn to UK economy in 2005; 80% new migrants 18-35, offset ageing population problems, work for lower wages, keep inflation down, hard working, enthuastic, flexible

Problems - exploitation, minimum wages, assimilation, abuse & violence towards them

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Senegal to Italy & Afghanistan/Iraq to EU

Brescia in Italy - full of Senegalese food, west African market, clothes, fabrics; mosque, satellite dishes; live in hostel in bad condition; teens - 40s; came to Italy to find work - hard to be farmers in Senegal; 54% below poverty line; send money home; 48% unemployment in Senegal - reluctant to leave; police often raid

Afghanistan & Iraq to EU - 9th year of war; cross Turkey to Greece, slip over EU borders without detection, many attempts to get to Britain - relatives; France & Britain trying to detect migrants & send them home

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Very good thanks!




Mr A Gibson


Great. Starts with the basics (which are crucial) and then develops into detailed case studies and lots of useful facts for you to quote.



Very useful 

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