AQA GCSE Geography A - Development

Here are my revision notes for Development. I have got some case studies, so you can choose to ignore these if you have different case studies(:

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Why is it becoming hard to classify countries'
Every country is different and changes over time
Wealth doesn't mean a country is developed
Some countries have rich companies but poor population e.g. Venezuela and United
Arab Emirates
China has a Communist government but is quickly industrialising
The UK is classed as a rich industrialising country but now the manufacturing industry
has declined and the UK is service based
Some countries are in debt with high interest rates so money they could have used to
develop is instead needed to pay wealthy countries back
The classification does not fit well because countries are always changing there
is a variety of economies.
The HDI index is based on life expectancy rate, literacy rate
and purchasing power. Why is this a more useful way of
measuring development as opposed to a single indicator
such as wealth?
HDI is much broader way of looking at development as it combines health, education
and wealth
The death rate is becoming less useful as countries have an ageing population which
will have increasing death rates
Economic factors such as the GNI do not tell you about the quality of life people have
The best way to measure development is to use social factors as well as economic
People may be poor yet they are educated, live to a good age and their children
are healthy.
Factors Affecting Development
Political factors:
Corrupt politicians enrich themselves at their country's expense so money is not
available for education, health services, roads, clean water and sanitation
In Zimbabwe, highly productive land owned by farmers was taken by the government.
Inflation exceeded 1,000%
Economic factors:
Low life expectancies and low standard of living make development almost impossible
Trade is unfair
Poor countries export primary goods which richer countries buy for very cheap, process
it and sell the final product for more

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High supply of primary products and countries try to compete and out pay each other
Social factors:
Poor water quality causes disease, debilitating people and preventing economic
Inadequate water supplies limit crop yields
A poor country finds it difficult to fund education for all children to a good level
It is difficult for sick people to work hard so economies spiral downwards
Environmental factors:
The physical geography of some countries doesn't favour development.…read more

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Decent working conditions and no child labour
A social premium money to improve life in the community
A protection for the environment
Conservation Swaps and Debt Abolition: when a poorer country agrees to conserve natural
resources in exchange for writing off some of its debt. For example, Bolivia had $650,000 wiped
off its debt in exchange for leaving a large amount of rainforest as a nature reserve.…read more

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Type of Advantages in a donor country Disadvantages in a Advantages in a Disadvantages in a
aid donor country recipient country recipient country
Short People give willingly in a disaster Immediate help, lives Occasionally there is
term saved a failure to provide
Flow of aid may exactly what is
continue needed
Long Companies and individuals find New industries Tied aid ­ recipient
term satisfying and well paid work in improve skills and country reliant on
projects overseas employment donor country
Trade may continue in the…read more

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The government invested a lot of money in education,
resulting in a high skilled work force
The government offered a low tax rate
High tech companies such as Dell and Microsoft set up in
Ireland in the 1990s
Bulgaria joined in 2007
$9,000 GDP per capita
It has the 53rd highest HDI ranking
41% of the country is too hilly making it unsuitable for
buildings and the soil type is too dry for farming
It mainly produces primary products, such as iron, copper
and…read more

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Safety has been increased by putting pedestrian crossing on Clapham Road
A memorial garden has been created, honouring those who died in World War 2.
A Linx Project has been set up at the adult learning centre to lower unemployment particularly
in ethnic minority groups, such as giving career advice. There is access to ICT equipment and
job searches.
There is also a Stockwell Refugee Women's Centre which welcomes women from ethnic
minority groups.…read more


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