GCSE Geography AQA - Tourism

Includes case studies! EXPAND ON THEM IN THE EXAM!


Butler Tourist Resort Life Cycle Model

1. Exploration - small no. of visitors, local people not yet developed many tourist services

2. Involvement - local population see opportunity, start providing accommodation, food, transport

3. Development - large companies come, advertise package holidays, tourism rises dramatically, job opportunites, ads & disadvantages

4. Consolidation - tourism now major part of economy, no. of visitors steady, employment more secure, some hotels etc old & unattractive, rowdiness

5. Stagmation - resort becomes unfashionable, number of visitors decline, businesses fail

6. Decline/rejuvenation - visitors prefer other resorts, attempts to modernise & attract more people

(Bournemouth example of rejuvenation)

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Mass Tourism, Ecotourism & Extreme Tourism

Mass tourism - tourism on large scale to one country/region, development & consolidation stages of BTRLCM'; many countries want mass tourism but it brings disadvantages

Ecotourism - sustainable form of tourism aimed at protecting environment & protecting local culture

Extreme environment - dangerous landscape, sparcely settled, access limited, e.g. ice sheets in Greenland, Sahara desert, Himalayas

Extreme tourism - thrilling activities, adrenaline rush, danger & risk, physical challenge e.g. ice-diving in White Sea, North Russia; some in non-extreme environment e.g. paragliding on South Downs

Target market - small, young, unmarried, childless, good incomes, likely to stay small - can't afford it as its very expensive, small fraction of people around 30, have to be physically able

Attractions - something different, rareness e.g. polar bears, ice bergs

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Physical attractions - 7 miles of sandy beach, 7.7 hours of sunshine, sheltered water, World Heritage Coastline

Human attractions - Pavilion Theatre, pier, Lower Gardens, promenade, Victorian architecture, oceanarium, night life, shopping, BIC, B&Bs, hotels, campsites

Advantages of tourism:

  • Generates money - £292,650,000 per year, 13,000 hotel bed spaces, 4,500 guest houses, 747 B&Bs
  • Creates jobs - 9,302, 73% full time, staying tourists - more jobs
  • Multiplier effect - more jobs --> higher wages --> more money from taxes --> more money on transport, education --> more money for local people, spend in shops etc


  • Litter on beach - more bins, dogs banned from May 1st - Sept 30th
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Bournemouth 2

  • Sewage overloaded - update sewage system, improve treatment
  • Conflict between beach users - zones seperating them, cyclists give way
  • Heavy congestion - advertise other attractions, park & ride
  • Need for wide beach - beach replenishment
  • Competition from abroad resorts - World Class Resort - quality not price
  • Seasonal tourism - short breaks, long stays, weekenders
  • British weather - indoor attractions
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Masai Mara, Kenya

Human attractions - paragliding, fishing, air ballooning, golf, horse riding, climbing, sailing, culture

Natural attractions - wildlife safaris, beaches, coral reef, scenery, Mt Kilimanjaro, Big 5

Kenya - 36mn, birth rate 32 per 1000, death rate 14 per 1000, natural increase 1.8%, £850mn from tourism

Negative effects:

  • Tourism fluctuates
  • Money doesn't always benefit locals
  • Jobs are seasonal, low paid
  • Farmers don't always gain
  • GDP is low
  • Pollution
  • Overuse of limited resources
  • Damage to coral reef, soil erosion, disturb animals
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Kenya 2


  • Quality rather than quantity
  • Develop ecotourism - sustainable
  • better distribution of tourist activity
  • High price minimums, taxing tourists
  • Diversify activity range
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Camp Ya Kanzi, Kenya

Example of ecotourism

Overlooking Mt Kilimanjaro - rich flora & fauna, real African wildeness, 50 different mammals, 500 bird species, Big 5, kudu, cheetah, wild dog, wildlife profitable

Local people - Kenyan tea/coffee, owned by Masai herdsmen, Masai crafts, Masai trackers, total involvment, conservation fee of $20 a day, share profits

Sustainable - max of 12 guests, variety & vastness, walks instead of vechicles, solar electricity, charcoal local, water recycled, sustainable development, environment conservation

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Jeep tours, river rafting, trekking, something new, element of danger, wildlife e.g. penguins, scenery e.g. icebergs, advertised on TV

Impact of tourism on Antarctica - ecosystems very fragile, delicately balanced, trample plants, disturb wildlife, drop litter, may introduce non-native species & disease, spillage of fuel, kill molluscs, fish & birds (Ms Explorer 2007)

Strategies - Antarctic Treaty - 1961 signed by 47 countries, protect & conserve wildlife, limit tourism, no more than 500 passenger, 100 on shore at one time

International Association of Antarctic Tour Operation - protected areas off limits, widlife must not be disturbed, 5m from penguins, litter not left & no smoking on shore, supervision, no plants trodden on, no untreated waste

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3. Development - large companies come, advertise package holidays, tourism rises dramatically, job opportunites, ads & disadvantages - is that advantages and disadvantages or ads and disadvantages?  if ads and disadvantages what is meant by it? :) thanks 

Jenny Hoper


advantages & disadvantages :)

G Brela


Thank you so much Jenny! You did the same case studies as me and I'm much further along now that I can look at your notes to help me remember the definitions of stuff! :)

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