GCSE Geography AQA A Tourism

Notes on Toursim for GCSE Geography

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TOURISM
WHY HAS GLOBAL TOURISM GROWN
GROWTH IN TOURISM
Tourism is the world's largest industry, worth $500 billion dollars in 2007. Leisure
accounts for 75% of all international travel. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO)
measured a rise in international tourism arrivals (i.e. people arriving in all countries
from abroad for a holiday) of 6.1% between 2006 and 2007. There were nearly 900
million tourist travellers in 2007 and this is set to rise to a massive 1.6 billion by
2020. In most countries, domestic tourism (people going on holiday in their own
country) is between four and five times greater than international tourism.
Region 2006 2007 Percentage Change Percentage of World
2006-2007 Tourism
Africa 40.9m 44.2m +7.9 4.8
Americas 135.7 142.1 +4.7 16.1
m m
Asia and 167.8 184.9 +10.2 19.8
Pacific m m
Europe 460.8 480.1 +4.2 54.4
m m
Middle East 41m 46.4m +13.4 4.9
World 846m 898m +6.1 100.0
The tourism industry is therefore one of the greatest providers of jobs and income in
countries at different stages of development. The reliance of different parts of the
world on tourism varies. For 83% of countries, tourism is one of the top five sources of
foreign exchange. Caribbean countries get half their GDP from tourism. The top six
tourist destinations are France, Spain, the USA, China, Italy and the UK. Germany
spends more per person than any other nation on holiday, followed by Americans,
British, French and Japanese.
FACTORS AFFECTING TOURISM'S GROWTH
Growth in tourism is explained by three sets of factors
1 Social and Economic Factors
Since the 1950s people have become wealthier. Incomes are larger and so is
disposable income (the amount left to spend as you wish after essential such as
housing, food and bills are paid). Most families have two working parents whereas in
the past it was usually one.

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People have fewer children; it is less expensive to take a small family away than a
larger one. Car ownership has also grown rapidly.
People have more leisure time. Holiday leave time has increased from two weeks per
year in the 1950s to between four and six weeks today. Life expectancy has risen so
more people are retired. Many have good pensions and can afford several trips per
year. They also have more time to travel.…read more

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Country Tourist Receipts ($
millions)
USA 66,547
Spain 33,609
France 32,329
Italy 26,915
China 20,385
Germany 19,158
UK 17,591
Austria 11,237
Hong 10,117
Kong
Greece 9,741
The tables show that:
o France has had more tourists than any other country for some number of years.
In 2007 it earned the largest amount from any nation from this source.…read more

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Tourists spend their holiday money in pounds Stirling, US dollars or Euros.
This foreign exchange is vital to poorer countries. It can be used to buy goods
and services from abroad.
o Many governments tax visitors to help pay for the extra services they use such
as water supply, drainage, electricity and roads
o Extra jobs are created indirectly.…read more

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO THE UK ECONOMY
The UK economy earns over £80 billion every year from tourism and leisure. This
amount usually grows slightly annually. Around 27.7 million overseas visitors spend
over £13 billion of this sum. Restaurants and hotels make up a large proportion of
these earnings, at £20 billion and £16 billion generated respectively. More than 100
new hotels opened in the UK between September 2004 and December 2005, creating
more jobs and income.…read more

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Rejuvenation: attempts are made to modernise the resort and attract different people
to enjoy new activities.
Blackpool is a good example of a resort reinventing itself. Day trippers and
weekenders now bring in most of the income, although websites and brochures make
a huge effort to attract people for longer periods.
EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING UK TOURISM IN THE EARLY 21ST CENTURY
Tourism can be limited by political and economic situations.…read more

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EXCHANGE RATES AND THE BANKING CRISIS
Currency exchange rates control value for money for tourists on holiday. In 2008, the
euro was high against the pound, valued at around 79p, so holidaying in France and
other euro zone countries became more expensive. At the same time, the US dollar
was valued at almost two to the pound, making the USA a much more attractive
holiday destination. In 2009 exchange rates make the UK an attractive destination for
international tourists.…read more

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Profits therefore go out of the tourist country-
they don't benefit the host country
New building developments need land. Local
farmers may be tempted to sell their land to
developers or development around them makes
farming their land almost impossible.…read more

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WHAT ATTRACTS PEOPLE TO EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS
EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS AND ACTIVITIES:
What? Who? Where? Why?
Only recently developed. Single/ no Deserts Empty
It's a modern form of children
tourism
Difficult Wealthy- Fragile Different
high income Environments experiences/culture
Dangerous Young Mountains Survival/Navigation
Niche Market. Not many Small Groups Volcanoes Risk
people
Different Artic/Ice/Polar Adrenaline
Trek Underground Team Building
Extreme Activities e.g.…read more

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HOW CAN TOURISM BE MORE SUSTAINABLE
CONSERVATION AND STEWARDSHIP
Stewardship is used to mean careful management of the environment on a large scale:
regionally, nationally and globally. All types of development and resource
exploitation are planned sustainably. Development priorities are set and strategies
created to achieve these. It is the ideal way to develop any country and any economy
but despite all the moves towards globalisation, it isn't yet the way all governments
think.
Conservation is stewardship on a smaller and more
manageable scale.…read more

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