The Great Depression
The Wall Street Crash. - 1929
First signs→ October→ NY dramatic 'slump' in stock market→ values of shares = DOWN→ Public discovered→ Confidence colllapsed→ Everyone rushed to sell shares→ Banks stopped giving out loans→ customers struggling to repay existing loans.
Businesses→ huge drop in sales→ companies laid off workers→ American economy downwards spiral→ 1933 production of goods only 20% of what it was in 1929.
'When America sneezes, the whole world catches a cold→ Loans which were given to European countries to rebuild economy after the 'Great War'→ wanted money back→ Couldn't afford to import goods from other countries→ They suffered too→ world economy went into severe decline→ the Great Depression→ good will between countires = gone
The Great Depression - Effects
Affected Germany and Japan very BADLY→ Germany → no money to build economy on→ companies out of business→ couldn't import/export→ Unemployment rise→ homeless→ food shortages etc.→ eventually lead to WWII.
Japan→ Only natural resource = silk→ luxury therefore no-one importing it→ couldn't afford to import food etc.→ unemployment rised→ not enough food→ people homeless→ lead to The invasion of Manchuria.
Russia→ Communist→ not really affected.
The Manchurian Crisis
Effects on ***an
Only natural resource = silk→ economy depended on exporting→ other coutries didn't import as silk = luxury→1929 population = 65million→ struggling to find jobs→food shortages→when USA economy collapsed→ affected worse→ America put taxes on ***anese goods to protect own industries→ 1931 half of factories closed→millions unempolyed.
The Army's Solution
***an had very powerful army→ leaders had great influence→ army had a solution→ needed raw materials, market to sell goods, more living space→ target obvious→ Invade Manchuria- had all natural resources coal, iron ore, oil etc.→ since 1904 ***. had the right to build railway in chinese province of Manchuria→ ***. army was already based in Manchuria→Government refused→ did not approve of military action.
The Mukden Incident- 1931-1932
18th sept. 1931→ part of railway in Manchuria destroyed-bombed→ ***anese claimed it was chinese→EXCUSE→ ***. claimed 'forced' to invade Manchuria to protect ***anese interests→ ***. government disapproved→ forced to support army's actions→ ***. public greeted news of invasion with enthusiasm→ Feb 1932→ conquest complete→ renamed Manchuria 'Manchukuo'→ put last chinese emperor 'Pu Yi' in control→ however forced to do as ***anese said.
The Manchurian Crisis - League's reaction & The Re
The League of Nation's Reaction
1st test for LON→ Chinese appealed to LON to act against ***. aggression→ LON in difficult position→ *** restoring order in area where they held rights?→ ***an telling truth about Mukden incident?→ LON also had no army→ Br/fr self interest, did not want to spend money on troops→ in own econimic crisis→ didn't believe ***./China posed threat to world peace→ LON considered applying economic sanctions→ however they would be ineffective → ***.'s main trade partner = USA→ USA not part of League, therefore would not work→ League responded by sending Lord Lytton for inquiry→ took several months (1 year)→ slow response→ 1932 Lord Lytton filed report→ ***. acted unlawfully and aggressively→ should return Manchuria to China → ***. ignored→ left league → 1933 ***. invaded chinese provine of Jehol→ 1937 started full scale invasion of china.
The Results of the Crisis
•LON shown to be weak/powerless.
•***an clearly in the wrong and ignored League when told to withdraw from Manchuria
•LON failed - the whole world was watching (Italy & Germany)
•LON reluctance could've been due to ***an's invasion being a local dispute
•People hoped if similar problem occured in Europe, League would take more decisive action.
The Abyssinian Crisis - 1934-1936
Mussolini wanted to build an empire in Africa→ had already tried to conquer Abyssinia→ unsuccessful→ pride→ Rome had had largest empire in history→ wanted more land and resources→ 1934 -30 Italian soldiers killed→ border clash w/ Abyssinia→ EXCUSE to invade→ 1935 Mussolini began to prepare forces→ Br./Fr. keen to avoid offending Mussolini→ saw him as possible ally against Germ.→ April 1935 Br./Fr./Italy signed Stresa Front→ agreed to stand united against Germ.→ Mussolini thought Br./Fr. would turn blind eye to Abyssinia→ Br./Fr. tried to dissuade Mussolini→ LON held plebicite→ most British wanted to use military force to stop Mussolini→ this made Br. Politicians talk tough→ Sir Samuel Hoare made impassioned speech to LON calling for resistance against Itlay→ had little effect→ October 1935→ Italy invaded Abyssinia→ Conquered as army had tanks, bomber planes, poison gas→ Abyssinians only fought with spears.
Emperor of Abyssinia→ appealed to LON→ LON had to act→ formed to stop aggression→ clear act of aggression→ imposed economic sactions→ banned trade of weapons, rubber and iron→ did not ban oil→ oil needed to invade→ Italy could still trade w/ USA for oil→ economic sanctions ineffective→ had modern weapons→ When Mussolini invaded Abyss. Br./Fr. did not close Suez Channel→ did not want Italy to ally w/ Germ.→ self interest→ closing Suez channel would have caused great difficulty→ stopped invasion?
The Abyssinian Crisis - Treachery & Results
Behind the scenes→ Br./Fr. planned to give 2/3 of Abyssinia to Italy→ if he stopped invasion→ Hoare-Laval pact→ uproar when details leaked to press in Dec 35→ two most important members of league putting own interests before the league's→ Hoare and Laval made to resign→ damage already done→ league shown to be powerless→ Mussolini continued attack→ 2nd may captured Abss. Capital→ week later: completed conquest of country→ Haile Selassie fled→ travelled to Geneva to LON→ asked for help→ too late→ Abyss. in Italian hands→ October 1936 Rome-Berlin axis signed→ Itlay and Germ. agreed to work more closely.
-The Rome-Berlin Axis signed
-Second Test→League shown to be powerless
-League failed and weakness shown
Germany and the Treaty of Versailles
A Fair Peace?
Germans signed armistice→ truce or agreement to stop fighting→ as USA had joined war→ powerful→ Germ. would lose→ therefore signed armistice→ believed peace would be based on Wilson's fourteen points→ thought it would be fair and not too harsh→ Pres. Wilson thought Germ. should be punished→ not too harshly to avoid want of revenge→ German hopes crushed→ were not invited to peace conference in palace of Versailles near Paris→ 7th May 1919 - presented with peace treaty→ Treaty of Versailles→ much harsher than they expected→ no negotiation→ treaty became 'Diktat'- dictated peace.
Conditions of Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to:
~Accept full blame of the war, therefore pay reparations(£6,000million)
~Also lost a large amount of territory- had no resources- no trade- couldn't pay reparations→ lost all colonies→ given to other countries
~Germany split in two (polish corridor) - gave Poland access to the sea
~Accept major cutbacks in armed forces- no air force- only small army (100,000)
~Rhineland demilitarised- bordered with France- meant germ. wasn't threat, but fr. was
Germans stunned→ mass demonstrations→ if government refused→ other countries occupy Germ.→ not strong enough to resist→ 28 june 1919 signed treaty→ Germ. public outraged→ govmt. blamed→ extremists claimed govmt, 'stabbed them in the back'→ Germans did not accept terms as fair→ wanted REVENGE
WANTED REVENGE→ TEAR TREATY UP→ USED ALL ANGER→ BR./FR. DIDN'T STOP HIM→ WANTED TO AVOID WAR!
Hitler - A growing problem?
Tear it Up!
Hitler→ leader of nazi party→ became chancellor of Germany in 1933→ restored 'power' to Germany→ Before that, in his autobiography, 'Mein Kampf' he wrote about his 3 aims if he came to power→ 1) tear up the T.O.V.→ saw it as humiliation for germ and thought it had caused siffering→ 2) Germany must expand→ wanted all the land lost from Versailles, but wanted to go further→ 3) Communism must be destroyed→ Hilter hated communism, wanted it stopped, so wouldn't spread to germ.→ therefore wanted to occupy parts of Soviet Union.
Rearmament: 1933 LON held world disarmament conference→ Hitler said he would disarm if France did→ Fr. refused- scared of germ. invasion→ Hitler left claiming, 'no real desire for disarmament' between major powers→ 1935 Hitler built the Luftwaffe air force→ introduced conscription→ intended to create an army of 600,000, T.O.V. only allowed army of 100,000→ Br./Fr./It. did not take action→ self interest→ didn't want war→ thought T.O.V. unfair anyway.
The Saar rejoins Germany-1935: 1919→ Saar placed under LON control for 15 years→ important coal mining area→ Period ran out→ plebicite held→ to see if public wanted to rejoin germ.→ 90% of population wanted to rejoin→ area to returned to germ.→ Hitler delighted→ saw it as a sign of how popular his rule was.
Hitler's Actions - Part 2
The remilitarisation of the Rhineland, 1936
TOV→ made Germany remove troops from Rhineland→ Hitler thought it unfair→ Germ. open to attack from the West (Fr.)→ France did not have to demilitarise from Rhineland→ Made Fr. a threat→ 7th March 1936→ Hitler ordered troops to march into Rhineland→ biggest gamble of his life→ told troops if France resisted to withdraw→ Hitler thought Fr. would not act without Br. help→ Hitler right→ Br. and Fr. did not act→ not worth going to war over→ many Br. people thought Hitler was 'marching into his own back yard'→ TOV reversed.
Hitler→ knew he needed allies if there was a war→ Br./Fr./Russ. suspicious of Hitler→ other countries admired→ 1939 - Rome-Berlin Axis with Italy→ informal agreement to cooperate→ both provided help for Spanish nationalists→ this agreement Hitler claimed would be the centre of which Europe would revolve around→ 1936 Germ./***. signed Anti-Comintern pact→ to oppose and eradicate communism→1937 Italy joined→1939 Germ./Italy turned R-B Axis into formal military alliance→ called Pact of Steel→ 1940 ***an joined→ three countries referred to themselves as 'Axis Powers’.
Appeasement in Action: Anschluss
A policy of mantaining peace by negotiation and making concessions→ seemed little point in risking war by resisting Hitler's demands→ appeasement most associated with Chamberlain→ Hitler believed appeasement was a sign of weakness→ thought with appeasement Br./Fr. would do nothing to stop him→ Hitler was now stronger→ wanted Anschluss (formal union of Germany and Austria)→ expressly forbidden in TOV→ 1934 Austrian Nazis tried to seize power→ Hitler keen to help→ Mussolini wanted Austria→ sent 100,000 troops incase Hitler took action→ hitler backed down→ 1936 Mussolini and Germ. friends→ Rome-Berlin Axis→ 1938 Hitler's armed forces much stronger→ Italy would not stop them.
Moves towards Anschluss
Austrian Chancellor→ Schuschnigg→ appoints leading Nazis into goverment→ hopes it will stop trouble/inteference of germ.→ 1938 Austrian police discovered plans to try and overthrow government→ Schuschnigg visits Hitler→ attempts to persuade him not to support any Nazi attempts to overthrow government→ Also appoints Nazi Seyss Inquart to try and please Hitler again→ minister of interior→ Schuschnigg decided to have pelbicite to see if public wanted to join w/ Germany→ Hitler worried public would vote 'no'→ demanded Schuchnigg resign→ if he did not, Germ. would invade→ 11th March 1938 Schuschnigg stepped down→ next morning Germ. troops walk into Austria to 'absorb' country'
Appeasement in Action: Anschluss
Austrians did not resist→ many welcomed it→ Hitler held plebicite→ 99.75% of the population 'happy' with Anschluss.
Britain and France
Concerned at first→ did not want to start war→ Hitler had now BROKEN TOV→ however plebicite results kept them reassured→ thought there was no reason to stop Hitler if public was happy→ Br./Fr. did not agree with TOV→ further proof for Hitler that Br./Fr. would not stop him.
The Sudeten Crisis - 1938
Obvious→Czechoslovkia→ Hitler saw it as a symbol of weakness and humiliation→ sudetenland→ contained 3million german speakers→ EXCUSE
The Czech Problem
Geographical position→ dangerous threat→ came deep into Germ's eastern border→ strong economically and militarily→ army had 34 divisions, had coal, lignite and skoda armaments→ made it an extremely dangerous threat→most military resources in sudetenland→ Hitler would gain useful resources and weaken potential threat→ also extend his Grossdeutschland and make more lebensraum.
Moving against Czecholslovakia
Hitler ordered leaders of Czech Nazi party to demand positions in govmt→ at first Czechs made concessions→ nazis demanding more→ Pres. Benes said NO→ Hitler tells Germ. Sudetens to riot→ says he will support them→ 12 september 1938→ start rioting→ Pres. Benes crushes rioters→ now knew german intervention inevitable→ would br./fr. help?
The Sudeten Crisis - 1938
Br./Fr.→ not willing to go to war over Czechoslovakia→ Chamberlain flew to meet Hitler in Berchtesgarden to discuss demands→ then flew to Czech. to meet w/ Pres. Benes→ Pres. Benes realised he would not get support from br./fr.→ agreed to give the parts of Sudetenland where the majority were German speakers to Hitler→ Chamberlain flew back to Hilter→ Hitler refused→ 'not enough'→ claimed German Sudetens being mistreated→ said if all of Sudetenland was not his by 1st october, he would have to invade to 'save' german Sudetens.
The Munich Conference
Chamberlain returned to England 'Dismayed'→ started to prepare for war→ building trenches, handing out gas masks→ Chamberlain could not see how war could be avoided→ Mussolini then proposed a meeting between Br./Fr./Germ./It. to resolve the crisis→ Chamberlain delighted→ 4 powers met in Munich on 29 Sept→ agreed Sudetenland to become part of Germ.→ Fr./Br. congratulated themselves on 'saving' Czechs→ 30the Sept Anglo-German Declaration signed→ height of appeasement → all disputes to be resolved by negotiation and making concessions → Chamberlain 'I believe it is peace for our time'→ Germ. troops entered Sudetenland on 1 October 1938→ soon Hungary and Poland occupied parts of Czechoslovakia where they were the majority→ no one stopped them→ Neither Soviet Union or Czechoslovakia invited to Munich conference→ Pres. Benes outraged and disgusted→ resigned→ Stalin thought great powers ignoring SU→ both countries would've opposed agreement.
The Road to War
Appeasement based on trust→ Chamberlain trustworthy→ Hitler not→ just 6 months after Munich, Hitler ordered troops into Bohemia and Moravia→ Hitler had no excuse→ Chamberlain now knew Hitler was not trustworthy→ began preparing for war→ Chamberlain introduced conscription→ Appeasement dead.
20th March Hitler demanded that city of Memel be handed over→ made a free city under TOV→ Lithiuania handed over to Germany for fear of Invasion→ LON could do nothing→ Br./Fr. not prepared to go to war to protect TOV.→ now knew stand had to be made
Obvious next target = Poland→ Germans had always resented polish corridor→ 31 March 1939 Br./Fr. promised Poland that if threatened, they would guarantee independance→ Also approached Soviet Union to try and form anti-Nazi alliance→ Stalin did not trust Hitler→ not invited him to Munich conference→ not keen to enter agreement→ negotiations broke down july 1939.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
shocking moment in History→ Br. not only one going to Russian→ Germany also going to Russian for alliance→ 23rd August 1939 sensational announcement made→ Hitler and Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Pact→ Did not agree to fight along side eachother→ just not to fight eachother→ secretly decided to spilt Poland→ Hitler did not believe Br. would go to war for Poland→ Chamberlain continues to support Poland→ 1st sept Germ. invade poland→ Br./Fr. demand to withdraw→ Hitler doesn't→ 3rd sept Br. declare war on Germany→ 17th Sept Russia invade Poland.
Appeasement - Right or Wrong?
WRONG→ failed→ led to WWII
Arguments in Favour
~Nobody wanted war→ nobody wanted a repeat of war→europe in depression→ people war weary
~Great sympathy for Germany→ TOV too harsh→ Br. had no real problem w/ Germany
~Remaining friends with Hilter→ He hated Russia and communism→ didn't want it to spread
~1936 Br. not ready for war→ bought time to strengthen army.
~Based on trust→ Chamberlain trustworthy→ Hitler not
~Hitler saw appeasement as weak→ made him think he would go further
~Moral Issue→ Br. World Police→ as a moral issue should have stood up to Nazis→ shouldn't give Czech away.
~Appeasement 1 sided→ no one ever attempted to actually STOP Hitler.