Edexcel GCSE History, Unit 1, Section 3

Why did War break out?
International Relations 1929-39

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The Great Depression

The Wall Street Crash. - 1929

First signs→ October→  NY dramatic 'slump' in stock market values of shares = DOWN→  Public discovered→  Confidence colllapsed→  Everyone rushed to sell shares→ Banks stopped giving out loans→ customers struggling to repay existing loans.

Businesses→ huge drop in sales→ companies laid off workers→  American economy downwards spiral→ 1933 production of goods only 20% of what it was in 1929.

THE RESULTS

'When America sneezes, the whole world catches a cold→ Loans which were given to European countries to rebuild economy after the 'Great War'→  wanted money back→  Couldn't afford to import goods from other countries→ They suffered tooworld economy went into severe declinethe Great Depressiongood will between countires = gone

 

 

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The Great Depression - Effects

The Effects

Affected Germany and Japan very BADLY→  Germany no money to build economy on companies out of business couldn't import/export→  Unemployment rise homeless food shortages etc.→  eventually lead to WWII.

Japan→  Only natural resource = silk→  luxury therefore no-one importing it→  couldn't afford to import food etc.→  unemployment rised→  not enough food→  people homeless lead to The invasion of Manchuria.

Russia→  Communist not really affected.

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The Manchurian Crisis

Effects on Japan
Only natural resource = silk→ economy depended on exporting→ other coutries didn't import as silk = luxury→1929 population = 65millionstruggling to find jobs→food shortages→when USA economy collapsedaffected worseAmerica put taxes on Japanese goods to protect own industries1931 half of factories closedmillions unempolyed.

The Army's Solution
Japan had very powerful armyleaders had great influencearmy had a solution→ needed raw materials, market to sell goods, more living space→ target obvious→  Invade Manchuria- had all natural resources coal, iron ore, oil etc.→ since 1904 Jap. had the right to build railway in chinese province of Manchuria→ Jap. army was already based in Manchuria→Government refuseddid not approve of military action.

The Mukden Incident- 1931-1932
18th sept. 1931→ part of railway in Manchuria destroyed-bombed→ Japanese claimed it was chineseEXCUSE→ Jap. claimed 'forced' to invade Manchuria to protect Japanese interests→ Jap. government disapprovedforced to support army's actions→ Jap. public greeted news of invasion with enthusiasmFeb 1932→ conquest complete→ renamed Manchuria 'Manchukuo'→ put last chinese emperor 'Pu Yi' in control→ however forced to do as Japanese said.

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The Manchurian Crisis - League's reaction & The Re

The League of Nation's Reaction
1st test for LON Chinese appealed to LON to act against Jap. aggression LON in difficult position *** restoring order in area where they held rights? Japan telling truth about Mukden incident? LON also had no army Br/fr self interest, did not want to spend money on troops  in own econimic crisis didn't believe Jap./China posed threat to world peace LON considered applying economic sanctions  however they would be ineffective  Jap.'s main trade partner = USA  USA not part of League, therefore would not work League responded by sending Lord Lytton for inquiry took several months (1 year) slow response 1932 Lord Lytton filed report Jap. acted unlawfully and aggressively should return Manchuria to China Jap. ignored left league  1933 Jap. invaded chinese provine of Jehol 1937 started full scale invasion of china.

The Results of the Crisis
LON shown to be weak/powerless.
Japan clearly in the wrong and ignored League when told to withdraw from Manchuria
LON failed - the whole world was watching (Italy & Germany)
LON reluctance could've been due to Japan's invasion being a local dispute
•People hoped if similar problem occured in Europe, League would take more decisive action.

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The Abyssinian Crisis - 1934-1936

Italian Ambitions
Mussolini wanted to build an empire in Africa→ had already tried to conquer AbyssiniaunsuccessfulprideRome had had largest empire in history wanted more land and resources1934 -30 Italian soldiers killedborder clash w/ Abyssinia→ EXCUSE to invade→ 1935 Mussolini began to prepare forcesBr./Fr. keen to avoid offending Mussolini→ saw him as possible ally against Germ.→ April 1935 Br./Fr./Italy signed Stresa Front→ agreed to stand united against Germ.→ Mussolini thought Br./Fr. would turn blind eye to AbyssiniaBr./Fr. tried to dissuade Mussolini→ LON held plebicite→ most British wanted to use military force to stop Mussolini→ this made Br. Politicians talk toughSir Samuel Hoare made impassioned speech to LON calling for resistance against Itlay→ had little effectOctober 1935Italy invaded AbyssiniaConquered as army had tanks, bomber planes, poison gasAbyssinians only fought with spears.

Haile Selassie
Emperor of Abyssiniaappealed to LON→ LON had to act→ formed to stop aggressionclear act of aggressionimposed economic sactionsbanned trade of weapons, rubber and iron→ did not ban oiloil needed to invade→ Italy could still trade w/ USA for oil→ economic sanctions ineffective→ had modern weapons→ When Mussolini invaded Abyss. Br./Fr. did not close Suez Channel→ did not want Italy to ally w/ Germ.→ self interest→ closing Suez channel would have caused great difficultystopped invasion?

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The Abyssinian Crisis - Treachery & Results

Treachery
Behind the scenesBr./Fr. planned to give 2/3 of Abyssinia to Italyif he stopped invasionHoare-Laval pactuproar when details leaked to press in Dec 35→ two most important members of league putting own interests before the league's→ Hoare and Laval made to resigndamage already doneleague shown to be powerless→ Mussolini continued attack2nd may captured Abss. Capital→ week later: completed conquest of country→ Haile Selassie fled→ travelled to Geneva to LON→ asked for helptoo lateAbyss. in Italian handsOctober 1936 Rome-Berlin axis signed→ Itlay and Germ. agreed to work more closely.

The Results
-The Rome-Berlin Axis signed
-Second Test→League shown to be powerless
-League failed and weakness shown

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Germany and the Treaty of Versailles

A Fair Peace?
Germans signed armistice→ truce or agreement to stop fighting→ as USA had joined warpowerful→ Germ. would lose→ therefore signed armisticebelieved peace would be based on Wilson's fourteen pointsthought it would be fair and not too harsh→ Pres. Wilson thought Germ. should be punishednot too harshly to avoid want of revenge→ German hopes crushed→ were not invited to peace conference in palace of Versailles near Paris→ 7th May 1919 - presented with peace treaty→ Treaty of Versailles→ much harsher than they expectedno negotiation→ treaty became 'Diktat'- dictated peace.

Conditions of Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to:
~Accept full blame of the war, therefore pay reparations(£6,000million)
~Also lost a large amount of territory- had no resources- no trade- couldn't pay reparations→ lost all colonies→ given to other countries
~Germany split in two (polish corridor) - gave Poland access to the sea
~Accept major cutbacks in armed forces- no air force- only small army (100,000)
~Rhineland demilitarised- bordered with France- meant germ. wasn't threat, but fr. was
Germans stunnedmass demonstrations→ if government refused→ other countries occupy Germ.→ not strong enough to resist28 june 1919 signed treaty→ Germ. public outraged→ govmt. blamed→ extremists claimed govmt, 'stabbed them in the back'Germans did not accept terms as fair→ wanted REVENGE

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HITLER

WANTED REVENGE→ TEAR TREATY UP→ USED ALL ANGER→ BR./FR. DIDN'T STOP HIM→ WANTED TO AVOID WAR!

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Hitler - A growing problem?

Tear it Up!
Hitlerleader of nazi party→ became chancellor of Germany in 1933restored 'power' to Germany→ Before that, in his autobiography, 'Mein Kampf' he wrote about his 3 aims if he came to power1) tear up the T.O.V.→ saw it as humiliation for germ and thought it had caused siffering2) Germany must expand→ wanted all the land lost from Versailles, but wanted to go further3) Communism must be destroyed→ Hilter hated communism, wanted it stopped, so wouldn't spread to germ.→ therefore wanted to occupy parts of Soviet Union.

Hitler's actions
Rearmament: 1933 LON held world disarmament conference Hitler said he would disarm if France did→ Fr. refused- scared of germ. invasionHitler left claiming, 'no real desire for disarmament' between major powers1935 Hitler built the Luftwaffe air force→ introduced conscription→ intended to create an army of 600,000, T.O.V. only allowed army of 100,000→ Br./Fr./It. did not take actionself interestdidn't want war→ thought T.O.V. unfair anyway.

The Saar rejoins Germany-1935: 1919→ Saar placed under LON control for 15 years→  important coal mining area→  Period ran out→ plebicite held→ to see if public wanted to rejoin germ.→ 90% of population wanted to rejoin→ area to returned to germ.→ Hitler delighted→  saw it as a sign of how popular his rule was.

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Hitler's Actions - Part 2

The remilitarisation of the Rhineland, 1936
TOV→ made Germany remove troops from RhinelandHitler thought it unfair→ Germ. open to attack from the West (Fr.)→ France did not have to demilitarise from Rhineland→ Made Fr. a threat7th March 1936→ Hitler ordered troops to march into Rhinelandbiggest gamble of his life→ told troops if France resisted to withdraw→ Hitler thought Fr. would not act without Br. help→ Hitler right→ Br. and Fr. did not actnot worth going to war over→ many Br. people thought Hitler was 'marching into his own back yard'→ TOV reversed.

Making Allies
Hitler→ knew he needed allies if there was a war→ Br./Fr./Russ. suspicious of Hitler→ other countries admired1939 - Rome-Berlin Axis with Italyinformal agreement to cooperate→ both provided help for Spanish nationalists→ this agreement Hitler claimed would be the centre of which Europe would revolve around→ 1936 Germ./Jap. signed Anti-Comintern pact→ to oppose and eradicate communism1937 Italy joined1939 Germ./Italy turned R-B Axis into formal military alliance→ called Pact of Steel1940 Japan joined→ three countries referred to themselves as 'Axis Powers’.

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Appeasement in Action: Anschluss

Appeasement
A policy of mantaining peace by negotiation and making concessions→ seemed little point in risking war by resisting Hitler's demands→ appeasement most associated with Chamberlain→ Hitler believed appeasement was a sign of weakness→ thought with appeasement Br./Fr. would do nothing to stop him→ Hitler was now stronger→ wanted Anschluss (formal union of Germany and Austria)→ expressly forbidden in TOV1934 Austrian Nazis tried to seize powerHitler keen to help→ Mussolini wanted Austria→ sent 100,000 troops incase Hitler took action→ hitler backed down→ 1936 Mussolini and Germ. friendsRome-Berlin Axis→ 1938 Hitler's armed forces much stronger→ Italy would not stop them.

Moves towards Anschluss
Austrian Chancellor→ Schuschnigg→ appoints leading Nazis into goverment→ hopes it will stop trouble/inteference of germ.→ 1938 Austrian police discovered plans to try and overthrow government→ Schuschnigg visits Hitler→ attempts to persuade him not to support any Nazi attempts to overthrow government→ Also appoints Nazi Seyss Inquart to try and please Hitler againminister of interior→ Schuschnigg decided to have pelbicite to see if public wanted to join w/ Germany→ Hitler worried public would vote 'no'demanded Schuchnigg resign→ if he did not, Germ. would invade→ 11th March 1938 Schuschnigg stepped down→ next morning Germ. troops walk into Austria to 'absorb' country'

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Appeasement in Action: Anschluss

Anschluss Achieved
Austrians did not resist→ many welcomed it→ Hitler held plebicite99.75% of the population 'happy' with Anschluss.

Britain and France
Concerned at firstdid not want to start war→ Hitler had now BROKEN TOV→ however plebicite results kept them reassured→ thought there was no reason to stop Hitler if public was happy→ Br./Fr. did not agree with TOV→ further proof for Hitler that Br./Fr. would not stop him.

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The Sudeten Crisis - 1938

Next Target
ObviousCzechoslovkia→ Hitler saw it as a symbol of weakness and humiliation→ sudetenland→ contained 3million german speakers→ EXCUSE

The Czech Problem
Geographical position→ dangerous threat→ came deep into Germ's eastern borderstrong economically and militarily→ army had 34 divisions, had coal, lignite and skoda armaments→ made it an extremely dangerous threat→most military resources in sudetenland→ Hitler would gain useful resources and weaken potential threat→ also extend his Grossdeutschland and make more lebensraum.

Moving against Czecholslovakia
Hitler ordered leaders of Czech Nazi party to demand positions in govmt→ at first Czechs made concessions→ nazis demanding more→ Pres. Benes said NO→ Hitler tells Germ. Sudetens to riot→ says he will support them→ 12 september 1938→ start rioting→ Pres. Benes crushes rioters→ now knew german intervention inevitable→ would br./fr. help?

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The Sudeten Crisis - 1938

Chamberlain Intervenes
Br./Fr.→ not willing to go to war over Czechoslovakia→ Chamberlain flew to meet Hitler in Berchtesgarden to discuss demands→ then flew to Czech. to meet w/ Pres. Benes→ Pres. Benes realised he would not get support from br./fr.→ agreed to give the parts of Sudetenland where the majority were German speakers to Hitler→ Chamberlain flew back to Hilter→ Hitler refused'not enough'→ claimed German Sudetens being mistreated→ said if all of Sudetenland was not his by 1st october, he would have to invade to 'save' german Sudetens.

The Munich Conference
Chamberlain returned to England 'Dismayed'started to prepare for war→ building trenches, handing out gas masks→ Chamberlain could not see how war could be avoided→ Mussolini then proposed a meeting between Br./Fr./Germ./It. to resolve the crisis→ Chamberlain delighted→ 4 powers met in Munich on 29 Sept→ agreed Sudetenland to become part of Germ.→ Fr./Br. congratulated themselves on 'saving' Czechs→ 30the Sept Anglo-German Declaration signedheight of appeasement → all disputes to be resolved by negotiation and making concessions → Chamberlain 'I believe it is peace for our time'→ Germ. troops entered Sudetenland on 1 October 1938→ soon Hungary and Poland occupied parts of Czechoslovakia where they were the majorityno one stopped them→ Neither Soviet Union or Czechoslovakia invited to Munich conference→ Pres. Benes outraged and disgustedresignedStalin thought great powers ignoring SU→ both countries would've opposed agreement.

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The Road to War

Hopes Shattered
Appeasement based on trust→ Chamberlain trustworthy→ Hitler not→ just 6 months after Munich, Hitler ordered troops into Bohemia and Moravia→ Hitler had no excuse→ Chamberlain now knew Hitler was not trustworthy→ began preparing for war→ Chamberlain introduced conscription→ Appeasement dead.
Memel
20th March Hitler demanded that city of Memel be handed over→ made a free city under TOV→ Lithiuania handed over to Germany for fear of Invasion→ LON could do nothing→ Br./Fr. not prepared to go to war to protect TOV.→ now knew stand had to be made
Guaranteeing Poland
Obvious next target = Poland→ Germans had always resented polish corridor→ 31 March 1939 Br./Fr. promised Poland that if threatened, they would guarantee independance→ Also approached Soviet Union to try and form anti-Nazi alliance→ Stalin did not trust Hitler→ not invited him to Munich conference→ not keen to enter agreement→ negotiations broke down july 1939.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
shocking moment in History→ Br. not only one going to Russian→ Germany also going to Russian for alliance→ 23rd August 1939 sensational announcement made→ Hitler and Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Pact→ Did not agree to fight along side eachother→ just not to fight eachother→ secretly decided to spilt Poland→ Hitler did not believe Br. would go to war for Poland→ Chamberlain continues to support Poland→ 1st sept Germ. invade poland→ Br./Fr. demand to withdraw→ Hitler doesn't→ 3rd sept Br. declare war on Germany→ 17th Sept Russia invade Poland.

 

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Appeasement - Right or Wrong?

WRONG→ failed→ led to WWII

Arguments in Favour
~Nobody wanted war→ nobody wanted a repeat of war→europe in depression→ people war weary
~Great sympathy for Germany→ TOV too harsh→ Br. had no real problem w/ Germany
~Remaining friends with Hilter→ He hated Russia and communism→ didn't want it to spread
~1936 Br. not ready for war→ bought time to strengthen army.

Aguments Against
~Based on trust→ Chamberlain trustworthy→ Hitler not
~Hitler saw appeasement as weak→ made him think he would go further
~Moral Issue→ Br. World Police→ as a moral issue should have stood up to Nazis→ shouldn't give Czech away.
~Appeasement 1 sided→ no one ever attempted to actually STOP Hitler.

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Comments

Nudrat

not exactly 'bitesize-chunks', but makes revision less daunting:)!

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