Edexcel iGCSE History Revision: Russia in Revolution, 1914-1924

A* Quality Notes on iGCSE History Topic B3: Russia in Revolution, 1914-1924

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IGCSE Section B Option B3
Depth Study
Russia 1914 - 1924
· Successes and Failures in WW1
· The February Revolution
· The Bolshevik seizure of power
· Civil War
· War Communism & the NEP

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Key Issue Content Revised?
Why was Russia so Nature of the Russian Empire:
difficult to govern? Size,
Nationalities,
Structure of society,
Nature of Tsarism
Growth of Nature of opposition to the Tsar
opposition to the Causes of the 1905 revolution
Tsar & 1905 Events of 1905
Revolution Consequences of 1905
How did the Tsar survive the revolution?
How strong was the Troubled years 1905 ­ 1914
Tsarist regime in Personality of Nicholas II
1914? Role of Rasputin
Stolypin's reforms
The Duma
Impact of WW1 ­…read more

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Death of Lenin
Creation of Soviet Union
1. THE TSARIST SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
The Russian monarch was known as the Tsar. He ruled as an autocrat and believed that God had made
him Tsar and that he therefore had absolute authority to rule Russia. The Tsar ruled with the support
of the aristocracy (landowners), Church, army and the Civil Service.
2. RUSSIAN ECONOMY & SOCIETY
The Russian economy was developing quickly in the years before 1914, especially in the period 1908-
11.…read more

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Moderates did not want revolution. They included many different groups such as the
Constitutional Democrats (Kadets) which was set up in 1905 and was led by Paul Miliukov.
They were mostly lawyers, teachers, doctors and civil servants. They believed in working with
the constitution or laws of Russia to bring about change, especially through the Duma (after
1905). The Octobrists were another group which emerged after 1905 and they believed that
change could be made on the basis of the October Manifesto and the Duma.…read more

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Civil rights ­ e.g. freedom of speech and conscience
· Uncensored newspapers and the right to form political parties
By December the Tsar was back in control and he sent troops to close the St. Petersburg Soviet and
crush the armed uprising in Moscow. He sent troops to take revenge on the peasants who had rioted.…read more

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There were
serious fuel shortages by the end of 1916.
SOCIAL MISERY
By the end of 1916 there was discontent throughout Russia. In the towns and cities there were high
prices and food and fuel shortages. In the countryside there were too few peasants to work on the land
due to conscription and increasing food shortages. Conditions in the army were so bad that an
increasing number of soldiers deserted.…read more

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Justice Minister and War Minister) in July of that year. Kerensky was also Deputy Chairman of the
Petrograd Soviet (workers' council). Many people already believed the Soviets were more effective as a
means of government than the Duma.
THERE WERE MANY REASONS WHY THE PROVISIONAL GOVERMENT DID NOT
SURVIVE:
1. CONDITIONS IN 1917
The Provisional Government was faced with pressures from outside as well as its own weaknesses.
Continuing the war against the Germans made the P.G. deeply unpopular.…read more

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THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917.
Bolshevik support had increased during 1917 and by September the Bolsheviks were the largest party
in the Petrograd Soviet. They also controlled the Military Committee of the Soviet with Leon Trotsky
as chairman.
Trotsky used the Military Committee to carefully plan the revolution.
On 16th October Lenin returned from exile and was now convinced that the time was right to
overthrow the P.G..
On 24th and 25th October the Bolsheviks seized power.…read more

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The result was that Lenin effectively became a dictator, and his secret police (the Cheka) began to
intimidate, imprison and murder political opponents.
NEGOTIATING PEACE
The Bolsheviks had always planned to pull out of the war with Germany. They agreed to a ceasefire in
December 1917. Trotsky was given the job of negotiating terms but his only real achievement was to
hold up the Germans until March 1918 when the Bolsheviks were forced to sign the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk.…read more

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White forces were completely defeated. The Bolsheviks had won due to their ruthless, disciplines
commitment and the failings of their enemies.
STRENGTH OF THE REDS
· They had large, well-organised armies under the leadership of Trotsky, and good
communication.
· They made good use of propaganda to show that the Whites were in league with foreigners and
wanted to bring back the Tsar.…read more

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