Crisis in Ireland


1801 Act of Union

In 1801, Britain made an act of Unin with Ireland. Some people in Ireland were nationalists, and didn't want to be joined with the UK. 

There was a divison between Unionists and Nationalists, Catholics and Protestants and a regional divide between Ulster and Southern Ireland as Ulster was industrial.

Protestants said "Home rules means Rome rules".

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What led to the conflict?

In 1910, the Liberlas formed a coalition with the Irish Nationalists and Labour. They Liberals promised Home rules for the Irish Nationalists. 

Home rules was debated before in parliament in 1886 and 1893, however it was vetoed by the Lords. 

In 1912 the Home rule bill was introduced to Parliament. The Lords vetoed the bill, therefore Parliament had to wait 2 years for the bill to be passed.

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Ulster Day

The Protestants signed the Solemn League and covenant in ‘Ulster Day’ petition. The protest was led by Carson. They refused to accept Home rules.

Ulster Unionists were well organised. The ‘orange Lodges’ held a protest in Belfast in 1912.

They wanted to be apart of the UK and didn’t want the Catholics ruling Ireland. They feared the Catholics would introduce a tax on Ulsters industial goods, the Catholics "Would hit them in the pocket".

They said they would use all means necessary to stop Home rules.

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Civil War?

Carson began preparing for civil war, while waiting for the Home Rules bill to be passed. Carson formed the Ulser Volunteer forcem they began to smuggle arms in. Similarly the Irish Nationalists raised Irish/Dublin volunteers. 

This violence reistance was even supported by the Conservative leader, Bonar Law.

The Liberal government was concerned of the consequences of the bill.

Chruchill wanted Home rules to go through. he wanted to send an army to Belfast, as this would force the Ulster unionists to accept home rules.

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Curragh Mutiny

In March 1914 the Curragh Mutiny marched. This was the military base in        Ireland for the Great British Army. Over 50 officers made a declaration that        they wouldn’t fire against their own people and they would resign their               positions. Many people doubted if the British Army would take action                     

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