Henry VII's Foreign Policy


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  • Henry VII's Foreign Policy
    • Spain
      • Ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella - very powerful country
      • 1489 Treaty of Medina Del Campo - it offered mutual protection if under attack, agreed not to harbor rebels or pretenders, marriage alliance between Arthur and Catherine of Aragon.
        • Ferdinand was reluctant for the marriage to go ahead due to the threat of Perkin Warbeck, they argued over the size of Catherine's dowry.
          • Married in 1501 - Arthur died in 1502
            • Ferdinand was reluctant for Catherine to marry Henry's second son (Henry). Henry lost enthusiasm for the marriage when Isabella died in 1504
              • Henry went on to support Juana and Philip of Burgundy in the succession crisis
                • 1506 Treaty of Windsor - Intercursus Malus restored trade between England and Burgundy; a proposed marriage alliance between Henry VII and Archduchess Margaret (marriage never happened); Henry recognised Philip and Juana as rulers of Castile.
                  • Philip died and Juana went mad; Ferdinand became ruler of Castile; Henry was left isolated; Ferdinand ensured that the marriage of Prince Henry and Catherine would not happen during Henry's lifetime.
    • France and Brittany
      • France invaded Brittany in 1487 and it looked like they were going to get the crown
        • This alarmed Henry
          • He raised an army against France because he had a sense of loyalty to the Bretons, and that French control of Brittany could pose a threat to England.
      • Treaty of Redon 1489
        • The Duchess Anne would pay for a small English army to defend Brittany
          • Anne fearing prolonged resistance to the French surrendered and reluctantly married Charles VIII of France.
      • In 1492 Henry launched an attack on France, and the French quickly sought a settlement
        • Treaty of Etaples in November 1492 - Charles agreed to withdraw support for Perkin Warbeck and to pay a pension to England.
    • Burgundy, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire
      • Margaret of burgundy was a Yorkist supporter, who enlisted the help of her stepson-in-law (Maximilian - Holy Roman Empire form 1493)
        • Maximilian and his son Philip (in charge of Burgundy) were hosting Perkin Warbeck, so Henry put a trade embargo on Burgundy.
          • 1496 Intercursus Magnus - restored normal trade links
      • 1506 Intercursus Malus - trade treaty which never really became operative
      • Philip and Maximilian agreed to hand over the Yorkist fugitive the earl of Suffolk, Henry imprisoned him in the tower.
    • Scotland
      • 1485-95 Anglo-Scottish relations were tense.
      • In 1495 James IV offered hospitality to perkin Warbeck (he recieved a pension and also married the King's cousin Lady catherine Gordon).
        • In 1496 James encouraged Warbeck to cross the border with an army, but they quickly retreated after they heard word an English force was coming.
          • Due to the Cornish Rebellion in 1497 - it became clear to both monarchs that a truce was needed. This was the Treaty of Ayton.
            • Because Anglo-Scottish relations were better, James no longer had need for Warbeck, and so he was given over to henry who executed him in 1499.
      • Treaty of Perpetual peace (1502) - Henry's daughter Margaret married James IV in 1503
    • Ireland
      • Henry VII only had authority in the 'pale' of Ireland
        • Power in the rest of Ireland belonged to the Anglo-Norman Barons, most of whom were the Fitzgeralds (or Gerladines) and the Butlers.
          • The dominant figure was the Earl of Kildare, lord Deputy of Ireland since 1477. He had Yorkist synpathies.
            • Kildare supported Lambert Simnel, whome he crowned King of ireland in 1486.
            • In 1491 he suppoted Perkin Warbeck as well.
              • Henry appointed his son Henry as Lieutenant of Ireland and appointed Sir Edward Poynings as his deputy.
                • Kildare supported Lambert Simnel, whome he crowned King of ireland in 1486.
                • 1495 'Poyning's law' - Irish Parliament couldn't pass a law without approval of the English crown. He also tried to implement English law in Ireland.
                  • This was too expensive and Warbeck returned to Ireland in 1495. Henry recalled Poynings and used Kildare as his deputy.
                    • 1496 - Kildare decided to support Henry loyally. He had secured some cheap authority over Ireland.

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