Adaptions to aerobic training

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Respiratory System

Respiratory muscles become stronger- 

  • Increase in-
  • Efficiency of mechanics of breathing
  • Max exercise lung volumes
  • Max breathing rate
  • Respiratory fatigue resistance
  • Max VE
  • Decrease in-
  • Sub Max breathing rate 

Increase in alveoli surface area-

  • Increase in-
  • External respiration/diffusion
  • Less Oxygen exhaled, and more is used. 
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Cardiovascular system- Heart

Hypertrophy (increase in myocardium size/thickness/volume)

  • Increase in-
  • EDV volume (filling capacity)
  • Ventricular stretch and recoil
  • force of ventricular contraction
  • Stroke volume
  • HR recovery after exercise
  • Decrease in-
  • ESV (volume after contraction)
  • Resting and sub Max HR (bradycardia)
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Vascular system

Increased elasticity of atrial walls to constrict-

  • Vascular shunt efficancy & BP regulation
  • Improved blood/oxygen supply
  • resting systole and diastole BP 

Increased number of red blood cells/haemoglobin/plasma volume-

  • Gaseous exchange/ oxygen transport
  • Venous Return
  • Stroke volume & Cardiac output
  • Viscosity during exercise

Increased capillarisation of alveoli and type 1 muscle fibres- 

  • Surface area
  • Time for diffusion
  • Removal of carbon dioxide during OBLA
  • distance of diffusion
  • velocity of increased blood flow
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Muscular system part 1

Increased Type 1 and 11a hypertrophy/efficiancy

  • Strength and reducing fatigue
  • Skill effciency
  • Energy costs

Increased muscle capillarisation

  • increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport & diffusion during exercise.

Increased Type 11a fibre ability to work aerobically

  • fibre percentage working aerobically
  • Ability to use fuel  and oxygen
  • OBLA

Increased myoglobin stores

  • Increase in oxygen storage and transport to mitrochondria
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Muscular system part 2

Increased aerobic enzymes-

  • reliance on metabolism of fat instead of glycogen
  • aerobic metabolism of glycogen

Increased speed/ability to use fats earlier

  • Conserves glycogen stores
  • Increased amount of ATP from fats

Increased number of mitrochondria-

  • Improved utilisation of oxygen/fat for aerobic metoblism. 

Increased muscle glycogen/fat stores

  • Increase in energy fuels to resynthesise ATP

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Connective tissue

Increased Strength of muscle tendons

Greater thickness/strength of ligaments

Increased thickness of cartilage

Increased calcium content/strength of bones

Reuced body fat composition-

  • Decrease in dead weight leading to an increase in efficiancy (power to weight ratio)


  • Increased strength of musculo skeletal system- allows prolonged activity
  • Less risk of injury
  • Reduced rate of aging
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Health Lifestyle areas

Combined effects-

  • Increase in the lactate threshold
  • Delay of OBLA

Overall net effect- increase in V02 max

  • intensity of aerobic performance
  • duration of aerobic performance
  • skill/work efficiancy

Aerobic metabolism

  • Muscles ability to use fuels
  • Ability of body to supply these fuels
  • Decrease in lactate production
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