Applications of the princ


  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 20-05-11 15:38

Principles of Training

  • Moderation - A balance between too much or too little training load; too much (injuries) too little (few training adaptions will be achieved)
  • Reversibility - adaptations are reversed if training reduced or stopped. Muscle atrophy takes place after 48 hours (aerobic reverse quicker than anaerobic)
  • Specificity - Specific adaptations critical for a specific sport. (can be applied: Individual - each performer has different rate of adaptation -genetics- OR - the sport - predominant energy system, major fitness component, muscle fibre type)
  • Variance - Varied training allows them to keep motivated also helps prevent repetitive strain and overuse injuries
  • Overload - Body working harder than normal - adapting to this. The point at which adaptations occur is training/adaption zone
  • Overload is achieved by increasing:
  • Frequency: how often you train
  • Intensity: How hard you train
  • time: how long you train for
  • Type: aerobic or anaerobic training
  • Progression: As body adapts fitness capability will increase - overload needs to be gradually increased
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organised devision of training in a number of specific blocks periods or phrases

Divides into 3 phases: pre season, competition season & transition season

  • Macro-cycle: Long term plan - long time goal - single year block of training
  • Mega cycle- macrocycle that may last several years
  • Meso- cycle: many make up a macro-cycle - medium term goal (4-16 weeks) length and number dependant upon activity and individual. The simple meso cycle - pre season, competition, off season, then there are typical meso cycles inside these
  • Micro-cycle:  short term plan typically lasts one week. A number of training sessions which form a unit

Benefits of periodisation

  • ensures that the principles are applied:
  • Moderation - prevents overtraining, Specificity - specific performance, variance - split into smaller units, progression - monitoring, warm up cool down, flexible - make sure you use time well
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Enables the athlete or coach to monitor whether the training load is correct...

  • Start of training - ensure overload is not to high or low
  • During - to see what further adaptations need to be one 
  • End - to see if the training was successful 

Aerobic capacity - Multi stage fitness test - bleep test

Strength Endurance - Abdominal sit up/ press up

Maximum strength - leg grip dynamometer

Explosive strength - Vertical jump

Dynamic strength - Cycle test

Static strength - test specific to joint angle

Body composition - BMI

Flexibility - sit and reach

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Warm up And Cool down

Warm up

  • Prepares the body physically and mentally for exercise
  • Consist of 3 phases: pulse raising activity (aerobic sub-maximal - increase temp, cardiac output, heart rate, minute ventilation). Mobility (Controlled joint movements - mobilise and lubricate joint) Stretching (active muscles need to be)
  • Benefits - Increase muscle temp - improving contraction - improving muscle force speed and reactions. Increase enzyme activity. Increase synovial fluid - lubricating joint. Increase elasticity of joint. Vascular shunt occurs. Reduces risk of injury, Build up lactic acid

Cool Down

  • Helps to speed up recovery
  • Two phases: Pulse lowering activities (low intensity aerobic work) Stretching of active muscles
  • Benefits: Maintains venous return, Q, SV, MV and blood pressure. Gradually reduces muscle temp. Speeds up removal of lactic acid. Prevents blood pooling
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