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Unit 1D4: Stalin's Russia, 192453

A: The Struggle for Power

Lenin was very ill for many months before his death in January 1924. During this time the Party elite
continued running the country. There was no mechanism for replacing Lenin.

Stalin was given responsibility for supervising Lenin's treatment by the…

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He also advocated a radical solution to economic problems, opposed NEP and believed that the
peasants should be treated more vigorously and forced to produce more.

Lenin's political Testament was `shelved' it was not made public and quietly ignored.

Why had Stalin amassed such power by 1924?

People's Commissar for…

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There was a great need to promote economic growth and industrialisation ­ no one disagreed about
that. The USSR had to invest in industry and the only place this investment could come from was by a
transfer of resources from agriculture to industry.

The Left Communists were against NEP. They…

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The defeat of the Right

Stalin had appeared to take the side of the Right in the struggle with the Left, but this was a tactical
manoeuvre and did not necessarily reflect his ideological position.

1927 poor harvest. January 1928 Stalin visited western Siberia. He was convinced that the kulaks…

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Stalin's control over personnel through the Party secretariat permitted him to sack those who sided
with the opposition. Every time a leading politician lost, this would be followed by a purge of his

The central influence over local Party affairs resulted in delegates who supported Stalin's line being

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Stalin was now dominant in the Party.

He had outmanoeuvred all potential leadership rivals. He controlled the Party apparatus, and had done
so since 1922, so many people in the Party owed their positions to him.

The economy had been recovering well under the NEP, although there had been a…

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As well as capital from the countryside, the workers needed in the new towns and industries would
have to come from the countryside, so it was imperative to grow more food with fewer workers.

Some items needed for Industrialisation needed to be imported from the West, and could only be…

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B: Transforming the Soviet Union

The debate about agricultural change

Some argued that the peasants should be encouraged to grow more and sell more grain by giving them
fairer prices.

This might take longer to create capital for investment and industry would have to make the goods
peasants wanted to…

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After the harvest of 1929 there was a great campaign to collectivise. Peasants were supposed to vote
on collectivisation, but in most cases it was forced through by party officials.

What were the effects of Collectivisation?

Between November 1929 and March 1930 60% of all farms were collectivised. Opponents were…

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The reality was that somewhere between 3 and 4 million people starved to death, in order to fuel

The harvest of 1935 was better. Private plots were allowed, so peasants could keep one cow, some
chickens and grow some vegetables.

This was an attempt to stop peasants killing off…


terry krigas


Very good resource for revision or consolidation of facts.

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