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The Qing Dynasty


Rule of the Qing dynasty (Manchu dynasty): 1644-1911
`Foreign Devils' was an expression used by many Chinese to denote
their hatred of Westerners who dominated China. Many believed that
expelling the `foreign devils' would restore independence and
greatness.
Europeans were thought to be upsetting natural balance (`Feng…

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alternative to Qing in order to start political revolution. He wanted to maintain a united
China and wanted to become Republic. He promoted modernisation , which was inspired by
western influence . (However, Sun did not have full control over the revolution that would
follow and was not in China…

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On 9th October 1911, a bomb exploded in Wuchang. On 10th October, the suspects were
arrested and executed.
Fighting broke out between Manchu and Han troops, which spread across China.
Province after province slipped out of government control.
By the end of November, the government only controlled eight of the…

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the government should be responsible to him and not to parliament. Song Jiaoren, who Sun
nominated as prime minister, was assassinated on his way to Beijing.
Generals in GMD dominated areas (south) were replaced with Yuan's supporters, Sun Yatsen
and other GMD leaders went into exile after Yuan declared the…

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Crops were devastated and farmers were forced to join private armies. The situation was
made worse by the drought in 1918 (hence) famine in 1920-21 .
The planting of opium was increased. By 1924it had risen by 20%. Peasants who refused to
plant opium were punished.
Projects such as dams,…

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government was forced to give way and refused to sign the Treaty. The main leader of the
May 4th Movement was Chen Duxui , who had also founded New Youth.


Sun was prepared to use extreme measures to achieve his aims. In 1922he accepted aid
from the Soviet government in…

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individual warlord armies and cut their supply lines. Although this unified China again,not
all warlords were defeated, some only accepted GMD authority if they could keep their
personal armies, some were offered positions in government.
The Northern Expedition was complete in 1928.


The Shanghai Massacres (The White Terror):- 1927 -…

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1931 Japan invade Manchuria . This is because it was rich in iron and coal (which the
Japanese wanted), Japanese population was growing and living space was in short supply
and the Southern Manchurian Railway (Japanese owned) had been attacked. Japan changes
the name of Manchuria to Manchuguo . It…

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The Sino-Japanese War breaks out in 1937 - Chiang refuses to make concessions and Mao
announces 'total resistance' in Beijing (Second United Front formed). Stalemate then
ensued and Japanese forces were diverted to Southeast Asia and to the theatre of WW2
against the Western Powers and their allies beginning in…

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(Mao Zedong and the CCP were victorious)




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hxs_7

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Thank you so much! This is very elaborative and thorough. 

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