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Stalin's Russia 1924 - 1953
Struggle for Power
Issue over the NEP split the party into right and left.

Trotsky wanted the NEP gone because it created Kulaks and led to a lack of
government control in the countryside.

Bukharin wanted to keep it because it created alliances between workers…

Page 2

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Bukharin ­ described as the "party sweetheart" as he was so nice. He was loyal to
Stalin and during Stalin's left turn he just gave up and resigned.

Stalin ­ cunning, manipulative, ruthless, underestimated. This is seen in his exploitation
of positions, such as GENSEK. He tapped phones, abused the…

Page 3

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Collectivisation of Agriculture

Grain procurement crisis 1928 ­ food shortages so people hoarded it! Secret Police and
soldiers requisitioned grain

People had to give up their land, homes and animals and get moved to collectives

Private ownership abolished

Consequences of Collectivisation
People began to destroy things like animals and grain,…

Page 4

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The Rural population fell

Stalin was arguably more interested in removing political enemies (kulaks)

Neo NEP as a result of peasant opposition = compromise with capitalism

Social results

Food Production disrupted, so was initially less grain

Peasants could benefit from kitchen plots

State procurement of grain increased, regardless of the…

Page 5

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Shortage of grain which was needed for industrialisation (food and exports)

NEP unpopular with left due to ideology and trying to achieve socialism in one coutry

Stalins personal ambition ­ left turn ­ outmanoeuvre Bukharin and end the triumvirate

Political reasons as would strengthen the communist party as they wold…

Page 6

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Diverted into amunitions

3rd Five-year plan: (1938-1941)

Different priorities as war with Germany was increasingly likely

More consumer goods such as radios and cars

Produced things to help the war- aircrafts, taks weapons and by 1940 1 third of the
budget on military

Output grew little due to purges which…

Page 7

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Machines often broke down and people weren't trained

Inefficiency ­ duplication and waste

Poor planning by people who didn't understand the economy

"Flitting" occuered where workers went from job to job to find better conditions. This
was illegal!

Shortage of nails and bricks after collectivisation disrupted the peasant's lives


Page 8

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Ryutin challenged Stalin, and called for a `fresh start' calling Stalin the "gravedigger
of the revolution". Stalin called for his immediate execution- the party successfully
argued against him and he was instead imprisoned for 10 years. He was eventually
executed, but the Ryutin affair showed that Stalin didn't have full…

Page 9

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Hundreds of thousands of party officials, army officers, and ordinary citizens were
arrested, imprisoned, or shot

Leading counter revolutionaries were publically tried in show trials

All old Bolsheviks were removed

The Purges ­ Results
Climate of fear created in the Soviet Union

People lived in constant fear of being denounced…

Page 10

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Act as a warning to others to not oppose Stalin

Create a climate of fear so people obey Stalin

Justify the NKVD terror

Provide scapegoats for failiures in industry

Confirm Stalins role as saviour for uncovering plots ­ cult of personality

Results of the Show Trials

Confirmed Stalin's leadership and…


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