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Alexander II: (1855-1881)
Trial by jury ­ ensured fair trials
Emancipation act ­ peasants no longer serfs, freed from land owner, had to pay redemption
Zemstva (elected council) ­ local elected councils, dealt with local matters
Justices of the peace ­ local officials to keep law and…

Page 2

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Political opposition in Russia (up until 1905):
Aims Supporters Methods How Radical?
Believed that a working Exclusive group Planning Very radical
class revolution should Small, tight-knit Violent revolution
Social take place ASAP No co-operation with Control from one leader
Democrats: Build a socialist society other parties (Lenin)
Bolsheviks immediately Expected…

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Sergei Witte and his influence on the 1905 revolution:
The Tsars finance minister 1892-1903
Was a fierce supporter of absolute monarchy
Had the job of industrialising Russia
Plan to industrialise Russia:
1. Government fund key industries (iron, steel, coal and machinery ­ capital goods)
2. Government funds this partly…

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Causes of the 1905 revolution:

Long term causes Short term causes Triggers
Economic discontent: Witte's rapid industrialisation: Russo-Japanese War:
Taxes on the peasants and Financed by loans and taxation What happened?
workers were high Huge growth in heavy industries Wanted to expand empire but
Workers wages were low Impact of…

Page 5

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How dangerous was the revolution?

Involvement of
Event What happened? revolutionaries Who would this scare most, why?
February 1905 The government
400,000 workers went on strike ­ by Railway strikes were crucial
the end of 1905, over 2.7 million No involvement for movement of troops to
Strikes workers had…

Page 6

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Paramilitaries such as the Black Hundreds were encouraged and funded by the Tsars
government to restore order by publicly intimidating and using violence against
opponents of the Tsar (e.g. ­ forcing protestors to kiss the imperial flag and beat them
up )

2. Use of compromises:
The October Manifesto

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The Dumas:
1. The first Duma [April ­ June 1906]:
Elections boycotted by SRs and Bolsheviks
All groups wanted to use Duma to introduces reforms, when these requests were refused, a
vote of no confidence was passed
Was dissolved by the Tsar after 72 days
Only 2 out of 391…

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Radical opposition called it the `Duma of Lords and Lackeys' because of pro-government views

4. The fourth Duma [November 1912 ­ August 1914]:
Very pro-Tsar and conservative
Vladimir Kokovtsov took over Stolypin's position

Successes Failures
Third and fourth Duma not so radical, and Never a truly parliamentary institution
therefore the…

Page 9

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Fundamental Laws 1906:
The Tsar holds supreme power. He can veto any law it passes
When the Duma is in recess, the Tsar can make laws without consulting it
The Duma will have two chambers: The Upper House will be the Council of State = appointed, The
Lower House will…

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Dominated by radical revolutionaries
Dissolved by the Tsar
The electoral laws:
Introduced before elections to the third Duma
Restricted the franchise ­ harder for radical and reformist parties to get elected
Resulted in 3rd and 4th Duma being dominated by mainly pro-monarchist parties
Produced an obedient Duma ­ suggesting Tsarist…







Thanks! This makes so much sense!!

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