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Long-term factors: Short-term factors:
· Continued autocracy - Tsar had · Harsh winter 1916 ­ crop
absolute power. Even after October failures/famine
manifesto Tsar still had all power · Workers in despair ­ cost of living,
· Poor living & working conditions rationing & death rate
· Peasant grievances ­ wanted more · Rising anti-government mood ­
land, wanted more money for grain strikes, political parties
· Tsar ­ appeared weak and indecisive
· National budget rose ­ higher taxes & borrowing from Britain/France,
Government printed more money leading to inflation
· Loss of agricultural workers & horses put strain on food production ­ food
· Huge loss of life &military humiliations also undermined domestic support - Spark:
> Urban workers hostile, peasants angry · Bread rationing
· Tsar took charge ­ defeats blamed on him (Winter War with Finland) · International
· Nick II refused support from `Progressive Bloc' ­ wanted to help deal with Women's Day - army
pressure caused by war
ordering to fire but
· Tsarina & Rasputin left in charge ­ she's German, replaced minister with
toadies, rumours of affair didn't, government
· Shortages/loss of resources ­ rationing, unemployment & inflation authority began to
· Made government unpopular break down…read more

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Political Dominance (party &
· Disrupts industrial productions as
country) :
managers blamed ­ encouraged Cause ­ rise of Kirov, Stalin's
to tell on & purge of GOSPLAN popularity was waning, Kirov got
causes chaos in organisation of 5 more votes in the Congress of victors.
year plans His murder led to the purges. Stalin
· Slave Labour was paranoid and insecure
· War economy · Purge of the party ­ show
· Purge of Leningrad Party
PURGES (where Kirov was powerful,
Stalin felt insecure here)
· Large number of delegates
· Most old party members
replaced by obedient
Purge of the army ­ military failings, experienced
soldiers had been purged e.g. Winter War with
· Yezhovshchina ­ random
Finland and against the Nazis in the beginning
brutal, fear creates obedience…read more

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Bolshevik Strengths: Timing:
· April theses (end war, power to soviets, peasants
land, overthrow PG & nationalise industry) "Peace,
· 12th November election ­
bread and land", appealed to all ­ played on feelings highlights Provisional
of workers/peasants Government is temporary
· Took control of soviets (dominated) & claimed to be
seizing power for them
(Kerensky knew and did nothing)
· Based in major cities · Army fighting war
· Armed · Bolshevik support at highest at
· Lenin persuaded Bukharin & Zinoviev that the time
was right
time of revolution
· Illustrated failures of PG
October 1917 Revolution
Mistakes by Kerensky: Weakness of the Provisional
· Kornilov Affair ­ released Bolsheviks & Government:
armed them -> humiliated Kerensky, · Temporary in name
Bolsheviks appeared "Defenders of · Failed to solve Russia's problems
Petrograd" e.g. war
· Tried to stop revolution through raising · Had to share power with the
bridges & shutting down Bolshevik soviet ­ didn't have support of the
newspapers -> gave them an incentive army (order one)
· Failed to act decisively to stop the · June offensive ­ embarrassing loss
Bolsheviks · Little support…read more

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Tsars autocracy
Political: Social:
· Autocracy ­ nobles in Economic: · Social hierarchy
control · Harsh winter ­ poor crop · Increased censorship over
· No opposition allowed (1891-2 Russia's worst universities/newspapers (14
· Okhrana ­ crushed famine of C19) shut)/books & restrictions
revolutionaries, e.g. the · Supported industrialisation on entry requirements &
`People's Will' ­ 8% increase per anum increased fees
· Conservative ministers, · 1885 ­ Peasant land banks · Russifcation (Russian
instead of Liberal ­ · Strong Govt interference official language)
Pobedonostev, made head · Increased taxes (peasants · Poor living/working
of church sold more to survive) conditions
· Separate political trials, · Trans-Siberian railway · Low wages & insecure
harsher sentences or exile · Economic growth employment
· Govt interference in law · Peasant poll tax abolished · Pogroms
· Chose juries · Foreign investment · Lower class only educated
· Govt courts · Exports mainly agricultural until secondary school
· Restricted Zemstva (these increased) · Strikes (1902-5 peasant
(teachers & doctors couldn' uprisings)
t vote
· Govt control police Why opposition didn't
· Land captains succeed:
· Desire for · Failed to gain enough support
democracy/political reform · No alternative to Govt
· Conservatives continued to
support Tsar…read more

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Long-term causes:
· Poor living/working 1905 Revolution The Russo-Japanese
conditions · Humiliating defeat
-why? (Jan `05 ­ forced to
population & 80% surrender Port
peasants) Arthur & defeated in
· 1892, 1898 & 1901 Manchuria)
­ harvest failures, · Sailed halfway
widespread famine around the world &
Bloody Sunday:
(lead to peasant lost 25/35 warships
· Disaster for Govt & Tsar (turned
uprisings ­ · All undermined the
into a massacre)
jacqueries, peasants Tsar
· Spark strikes/General strikes
attacking Govt · Prolonged the
(paralysed Russia)
officials & revolution (no army
· Railway strike(threatened Govt)
destroying records) to crush uprising)
· Demand for political · Tsar looked weak
reform (Liberals ­ · Mutinies: Potemkin ­
share power, SRs ­ took control of ship
power to peasants and went to
& SDs new society) Romania
support, although
not widespread)…read more

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