Statistics: Edexcel AS History - Russia in Revolution, 1881-1924 | Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53

Statistics relating to Edexcel AS History Option D: A World Divided: Communism and Democracy in the 20th Century, and specifically option D3 Russia in Revolution, 1881-1924 and option D4 Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53.

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Preview of Statistics: Edexcel AS History - Russia in Revolution, 1881-1924 | Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53

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History, Unit 1: Statistics
Why Did the Tsarist Regime Collapse in 1917?
What were the challenges facing the Tsarist regime at the end of the 19th
Russian geography (1881)
o 6400km (west to east) by 3000km (north to south)
o 1/6 global land mass
Demographics (1881):
o 77% peasants 0.5% clergy 1% nobility 2.3% Cossacks 10.7%
urbanites 0.5% merchants and honoured citizens.
Nobility made up 1% of population but owned 25% of land
By 1900, over 1/3 of young urbanites had fathers who had also worked in the
Widespread starvation in years of bad harvest: 400'000 died in 1891
By 1898, nearly 300'000 dissidents had been sent to Siberia
1881 Statute of Security gives government power to:
o Prohibit gatherings of more than 12 people
o Prosecute any individual for political crimes
o Introduce emergency police rule
o Set up special courts
o Close school, universities and newspapers
In 1890, the number of people eligible to vote was cut drastically (in Moscow
and St. Petersburg only 0.7% of the population could vote)
Railway boom during 1890s during which extent of railway tracks almost
By the end of the 1890s, nearly 60% of all iron and steel was consumed by
By 1899 the state had bought almost 2/3 of all metallurgical production and
controlled 70% of the railways.
Between 1890 and 1900, the production of iron and steel rose from 9 to 76
million poods a year coal output tripled and the production of cotton cloth
increased by 2/3
The growth rate in the 1890s hit 9%
By 1897, Moscow had 1.5 million inhabitants and St Petersburg > 2 million.
Even by 1900, the urban workers only numbered 3 million (2.5%)
The working class had a relatively high literacy rate (57.8%)
Number of strikes during the last decade of the 19th century increased (eg
textile workers mounted huge strikes in 1896 and 1897)
Populist `going to the people' movement in 1870s People's Will formed in
SR Party formed in 1901 did not hold first congress until 1906
o Peasants provided popular base but industrial base formed 50% of
membership by 1905
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party formed in 1898 split in 1903

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Hundreds of liberal dismissed from the zemstva 1900
1899-1901 saw student disturbances result in the closure of many universities
and higher education institutions
International recession brought depression in Russia from 1900
o In Donbass region, by 1903, only 23 out of 35 blast furnaces were
Poor harvest in 1901 led to peasant revolt in 1902-03
Russo-Japanese war began 26th January 1904
Strike at the Putilov engineering works on 7th January, sparked by the sacking
of four members of Gapon's organisation, led to a strike…read more

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Out of 478 seats, Kadets held 185 and Trudoviks 94 112 non-partisan
Second Duma:
o February-June 1907
o Kadets number halved (under 100) Trudoviks ­ 104 Mensheviks ­ 47
and SRs ­ 37 (over 200 deputies on the Left)
Third Duma:
o November 1907-June 1912
o Only 1/6 working class and peasantry can vote
o Octobrists ­ 154 deputies (overall Rightists ­ 147 out of 441 seats)
Fourth Duma:
o November 1912-August 1914 (met again in 1915 and 1916)
By 1914, only 10% of households…read more

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Petrograd Soviet formed on 27th February: by 3rd March it had 1300 members
a week later 3000 (800 workers the remainder from army units)
New coalition government formed at the start of May significant members
included Chernov and Tsereteli.
Hundred killed in June offensive (starting 16th June) and territory lost.
237 cases of attempted peasant land seizures reported in July
568 factories were closed between February and July with the loss of 100'000
jobs.…read more

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Denikin and Wrangel (south) ­ 150'000 men (large contingent of
o Admiral Kolchack (east) ­ some 140'000 men
Britain, encouraged by War Secretary Winston Churchill, sent £100-million
worth of supplies to the Whites.…read more

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The nomenklatura referred to a set of 5'500 designated party and
governmental posts, to which one could be only be appointed by the central
party bodies.
USSR formally established at the end of 1922
Politburo generally consisted of 7-9 members the Central Committee 30-40.
From Lenin to Stalin
How significant is Lenin's contribution to history?
Over three days, million queued to file past Lenin's body lying in state.…read more

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In January 1930, Stalin announced that around 25% of grain-producing
areas were to be collectivised by the end of the year.
Under pressure from the Right, Stalin agreed to stop grain seizures in 1928
and try to raise the price of grain, but food shortages persisted.
The Twenty-Five Thousanders ­ 25'000 urban party activists ­ were enlisted to
help revolutionize the countryside.
Up to 10 million people were deported to Siberia or labour camps during the
collectivisation process.…read more

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First FYP envisaged coal production increasing from 35 to 75 million tons,
and iron ore from 6 to 19 million tons.
Ten million women entered the workforce under the plans
o Women in the city made up 44% of the workforce.
Of 328 factory directors, only 20 were women and 17 of these were is textile
and sewing factories.
Only 4 women head doctors in hospitals, even though 50-60% of all doctors
were women.…read more

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In Georgia, two prime ministers, four out of five regional party
secretaries and thousands of lesser officials lost their jobs.
o Yagoda arrested in 1937 more than 23'000 NKVD men perished.
o Robert Conquest estimates as many as 2 million were executed, and a
further 2 million died in camps.
o Dmitri Volkogonov claims around 7 million were executed 1929-53.
The Cult of Personality
For his 50th birthday, Stalin received 350 greetings, some from organisations
that didn't even exist.…read more

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By 1923, numbers of schools and pupils were barely half the totals of 1921.
o Survey in 1927 showed children aged 11-15 had become increasingly
negative towards Communists values as they got older, and almost 50%
believed in God.
Between 1920 and 1926 some 5 million people in European Russia went
through literacy courses.
More than 8000 were executed or killed in 1922 in the anti-Church campaign,
including the Metropolitan of Petrograd, 28 bishops and 1215 priests.…read more


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