The Living World Revision Guide

This is a revision guide based on OUP Press textbook and case studies

Epping Forest

Atlantic Forest

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Question 4: The Living World Unit 1
Ecosystem The relationship between living things (biotic) and their non
living environment (abiotic/physical world).
Living = Vegetation / wildlife / bacteria
Non-Living =
Biome A world-scale ecosystem. It is found worldwide at similar
latitudes. The rainforests are one biome, Hot deserts are
Biosphere The zone where life is found, it extends to -3m and +30m and
is located between the lithosphere and the atmosphere.
The Location of Ecosystems
Hot Deserts Are closer to Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn .
Greatest extent is in Sahara, around Egypt and
Northern Africa. Approx 30º N and S
Tropical Rainforests Are located close to the Equator, and are located
down the wet eastern sides of the continents in the
tropics. 0-20° N and S
Deciduous Forests Are in temperate latitudes, they're located further
north and south on western sides of continents
(warmer winters). They cover UK and much of
Changing Ecosystems
Global Influences that determine the Local influences that determine the type of
type of ecosystem ecosystem
Temperature: Affects plant growth, over the Altitude: Temperatures drop by 1°C for every 100m,
tropics the sun's rays are higher and more causing less plants to grow.
concentrated meaning more plant growth.
Poles they are less concentrated because they Continentality: The distance from the sea changes
are spread out over a wider surface area. temperatures. Warms quickly in summer and cools
quickly in winter, with increased distance
Precipitation: This happens where air masses Nutrient-rich environments encourage plant growth.
meet and rise. Air masses meet and rise to Nutrients provided by soil

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E.G. The equator and in the Geology (rock type), soils. relief, drainage of a water
High-pressure belts, air descends creating dry
conditions. e.g North and South Poles
Seasons affect pressure belts.…read more

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Wide leaves to absorb sunlight
Deciduous Canopy trees grow very tall to Deep roots to reach different
Forest compete for sunlight layers in the soil. They access
minerals by breaking apart rocks
Herb layer flowers earlier to and leaching them.…read more

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Soils in the ecosystems
Hot Desert :
Soils are rocky, sandy and grey in colour. They are thin and
can have a crust caused by impact of infrequent rainfall. Evaporation leaves
salt crystals in the soil.
Tropical Rainforest : Soils are red in colour and rich in iron. They are not
very fertile, any nutrients are quickly washed out by heavy rainfall. Thick
layer of leaf litter adds fertility as hot-humid conditions ensure it rots
quickly.…read more

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Climate Vegetation
UK is maritime (on the coast) / Soils benefit from decomposition of organic
temperate. This allows certain material such as leaves which returns
plants to grow, e.g. deciduous. nutrients to the soil.
Varied vegetation provides habitats for
Rich vegetation due to fertile soils wildlife, food, shelter and breeding. Animals
(brown earths) found in lowland help to fertilise soil and spread seeds.
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food Chain is a straight line (linear). it shows what animal eats what.…read more

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Producer Eats the stage below it in thefood
chain. Can be herbivores, carnivores
or omnivores.
Uses sunlight, water and CO² to
produce chemical energy through
photosynthesis. All plant life.
What is it?
Hot Desert A hot desert is a barren area of land where little
precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are
hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation
exposes the unprotected surface of the ground.
vegetation is sparse, with limited variety and there are
few tall plants. There is some wildlife.…read more

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These tribes create a small and managed space so that they have room to farm and build their homes.
First by removing trees and then burning buttresses to fertilise the soil.
Because of the poor soil they have to migrate to a new location every 5 years.
This is called `Shifting Cultivation.' The aim is to allow the rainforest to recover without causing
permanent harm.
Large Scale farms and Ranching
Brazil has over 1.3 trillion dollars of debt, mainly borrowed between 1965-85.…read more

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Valuable raw materials are obtained.
The country becomes more economically developed.
While deforestation is economically beneficial, estimates show that conserving
rainforest land is more economically viable.
Brazil can use the taxes and exports to repay its $1.3 trillion debt
People may be opposed to deforestation, but governments won't want to stop because
of the short term economic benefits.
Improves communications through road building
Indigenous people can continue their traditional way of life, subsistence farming.
Indigenous people are lost.…read more

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Eco-tourism aims to turn a rainforest into an economic resource without the need for
deforestation. This provides locals with employment, educates visitors and ensures the
government becomes invested in preserving the rainforest. One destination is Una
Restoration is carried out byREGUA (Reserva Ecologica de Guapiacu),an NGO made
up of local land owners and members of the community. By 2008 they had replanted
38,000 trees of 50 different species, to regenerate the rainforest ecosystem. It has set
up an environmental programme for local schools.…read more

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The National Forest was created in 1990, it is located between Leicestershire
and Derbyshire.
· It is a new forest and over7 million trees have been planted there. All trees
removed for timber are replanted to maintain the forests ecosystem.
· The forest supplies wood to meet Britain's needs. 85% of woods is currently
imported at a cost of £8 billion.
· The amount of wood created in British forests has increased to 9 million m³.…read more


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