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Montserrat Secondary Earthquakes
Destructive plate margins- The pressure resulting from
Impacts the sinking of the subducting plates and its subsequent
melting can trigger strong earthquakes as this pressure is
· Fires destroyed local government offices, periodically released.
police headquarters and petrol stations. Constructive plate margins- Here earthquakes tend to be
· Tourists stayed away and businesses were less severe than those at destructive or conservative plate
destroyed, damaging the economy. margins. The friction and pressure caused by the plates
moving apart is less intense than at destructive plate
· 8000 of the 12000 inhabitants have left margins.
since the eruptions began in 1995. Conservative plate margins- Here, where the plates slide
· Volcanic ash from the eruption has past each other, the plates tend to stick for periods of
time. This causes stresses and pressure to build. The
improved soil fertility. release of the pressure often results in a sudden quick
· Tourists come to see the volcano. release of the plates and often results in powerful
Layers of the Earth Conservative plate margin
Destructive plate margin Constructive plate margin…read more
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The Richter scale The Mercalli scale
· The strength of earthquakes is generally · The Mercalli scale measures the effects
given according to the Richter scale. of earthquakes using a scale from 1 to
· There is no upper limit to this scale. 12.
· A scale 2 earthquake on the Richter · It uses subjective descriptions of the
scale is 10 times more powerful than a resulting damage.
scale 1, a scale 3 earthquake is 10 times · Effects are measured by asking eye
more powerful than a scale 2 witnesses for observations of what
earthquake and 100 times more happened in the form of words or
powerful than a scale 1 earthquake. photographs.
· This measures the magnitude of an
earthquake with a seismometer.
Italy Preparation Pakistan Preparation
· There are laws on construction · No local disaster planning was in place.
standards but some modern buildings · Buildings were not designed to be
hadn't been built to withstand earthquake resistant.
earthquakes. · Communications were poor. There were
· Italy has a Civil Protection Department few roads and they were badly
that trains volunteers to help with things constructed.
like rescue operations.
Italy Earthquake Pakistan Earthquake
· A rich country · A poor country
· L'Aquila Italy 6th April 2009 · Kashmir Pakistan 8th October 2005
· 6.3 on the Richter scale · 7.6 on the Richter scale
· Caused by movement along a crack in · Caused by movement along a crack in
the plate at a destructive margin the plate at a destructive plate margin…read more
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Italy Primary Effects Pakistan Primary Effects
· Around 290 deaths, mostly from · Around 80,000 deaths mostly from
collapsed buildings. collapsed buildings.
· Hundreds of people were injured. · Hundreds of thousands of people were
· Thousands of buildings were damaged injured.
or destroyed. · Entire villages and thousands of buildings
· Thousands of people were made were destroyed.
homeless. · Around 3 million people were made
· A bridge near the town of Fossa homeless.
collapsed and a water pipe was broken · Water pipelines and electricity lines were
near the town of Paganica. broken cutting off supply.
Italy Secondary Effects Pakistan Secondary
· Aftershocks hampered rescue efforts
and caused more damage. Effects
· Fires in some collapsed buildings caused · Landslides buried buildings and people.
more damage. They also blocked access roads and cut
· The broken water pipe near the town of off water supplies, electricity supplies
Paganica caused a landslide. and telephone lines.
· Diarrhoea and other diseases spread
due to little clean water.
· Freezing winter conditions shortly after
the earthquake caused more casualties
and meant rescue and rebuilding
operations were difficult.
Italy Immediate Response Pakistan Immediate
· Camps were set up for homeless people
with water food and medical care. Response
· Ambulances, fire engines and the army · Help didn't reach many areas for days or
were sent in to rescue survivors. weeks. People had to be rescued by
· Cranes and diggers were used to remove hand without any equipment or help
rubble. from emergency services.
· International teams with rescue dogs · Tents blankets and medical supplies
were sent in to look for survivors. were distributed within a month, but not
· Money was provided by the government to all areas affected.
to pay rent, and gas and electricity bills · International aid and equipment such as
were suspended. helicopters and rescue dogs were
brought in, as well as teams of people
from other countries.…read more
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Italy Long-term Response Pakistan Long-term
· The Italian Prime minister promised to
build a new town to replace L'Aquila as Response
the capital of the area. · Around 40,000 people have been
· An investigation is going on to look into relocated to a new town from the
why the modern buildings weren't built destroyed town of Balakot.
to withstand earthquakes. · Government money has been given to
people whose homes were destroyed so
they can rebuild them themselves.
· Training has been provided to rebuild
more earthquake resistant buildings.
· New health centres have been set up.
Tsunamis Asia Tsunami Effects 1
The tsunami is a series of enormous waves. It was in the Indian ocean and affected,
Tsunamis are usually triggered by Indonesia, Thailand, India and Sri Lanka.
earthquakes. The crust shifting is the · Around 230,000 were killed.
primary effect; a secondary effect of this is · Whole town and villages were destroyed
the displacement of water above the moving over 1.7 million people lost their home.
crust causing the tsunami. · The infrastructure of many countries was
· 5-6 million people needed emergency
food, water and medical supplies.
· There was massive economic damage-
millions of fisherman lost their livelihood
Asia Tsunami Effects 2 Asia Tsunami Short-term
· The tourism industry suffered because
of the destruction and because people Responses
were afraid to go on holiday there. · Within days hundreds of millions of
· There was massive environmental pounds had been pledged by foreign
damage. Salt from he seawater has governments, charities, individuals and
meant plants can't grow in many areas. businesses to give survivors access to
Mangoes, coral reefs, forests and sand food, water, shelter and medical
dunes were also destroyed by the attention.
waves. · Foreign countries sent ships, planes,
soldiers and teams of specialists to help
rescue people, distribute food and water
and begin clearing up.…read more
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Destructive plate margin Constructive plate margin
Convection currents in the mantle cause the When plates move apart, a constructive
plates to move together. If one plate is plate boundary results. This usually happens
made from oceanic crust and the other from under the oceans. As these oceanic plates
continental crust, the denser oceanic crust pull away from each other, cracks and
sinks under the lighter continental crust in a fractures form between the plates where
process known as subduction. Great there is no solid crust. Magma forces its way
pressure is exerted and the oceanic crust is into the cracks and makes its way to the
destroyed as it melts to form magma. surface to form volcanoes. In this way new
land is formed as the plates gradually pull
Conservative plate margin Fold mountains
At conservative plate margins, the plates are Large mountain ranges where rock layers
sliding past each other. They are moving in a have been crumpled as they have been
similar (though not the same) direction, at forced together by the collision of tectonic
slightly different angles and speeds. As one plates. When they collide the sedimentary
plate is moving faster than the other and in rocks that have been built up are forced
a slightly different direction, they tend to get upwards to form mountains. They are found
stuck. Eventually, the build-up of pressure at destructive plate margins.
causes them to be released. This sudden
release of pressure causes an earthquake. At
a conservative margin, crust is being neither
destroyed nor made.
The Alps Uses 1 The Alps Uses 2
Farming: The steep upland areas are used to Are damned to generate HEP. Switzerland
farm goats. Sunny slopes have been terraced gets 60% of its electricity from the Alps. The
to plant vineyards electricity is used locally to power homes
Tourism: 100 million tourists visit the Alps and businesses and exported further away.
each year and is a big part of the economy. Mining: Salt, iron ore, gold, silver and copper
Tourists can go skiing, snowboarding, ice were mined in the Alps but mining has
climbing, walking, mountain biking, declined dramatically due to cheaper foreign
paragliding and climbing. New villages have sources.
been built for tourists. There are ski runs, ski Forestry: Scots pine is planted all over the
lifts, cable cars, holiday chalets and Alps because it's more resilient to goats,
restaurants. which kill native tree saplings. The trees are
Hydro-Electric power: The narrow valleys logged and sold to make furniture.…read more