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UNI
T 1A
­ Tect
oni
c
Pl
Tectonic plates:
at
es
The crust is divided into tectonic plates ­ they are made of continental
and oceanic plates.
Continental ­ thicker and less dense.
Oceanic ­ thinner and more dense.
The plates more due to the fact that the mantle underneath is moving
them.
The places where plates meet are called plate margins.
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Plate margin:
Destructive ­ two plates are moving towards each other.…read more

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The animals are grazes in high areas due to the fact that the soil isn't as capable for growing crops.
Limited communication
Roads have been built at lower points of the mountains. (The Brenner Pass between Austria and Italy)
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Volcanoes:
There are different types of volcano:
Composite volcanoes (Mt. Fuji, Japan):
This is made of lava and ash which has erupted
over the years and is cooled and hardened down to form
layers.…read more

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A super volcano:
Is flat.
They cover a large surface area.
They have a caldera.
The possible consequences if a super volcano erupts:
A thick cloud of gas and ash will form burning and burying everything in its path.
It would trigger mini ice ages as the ash will block out daylight.
The ash will settle over large areas burying fields and buildings.
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Earthquakes occur at all three types of plate margins.…read more

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Ambulances, fire engines and the army were Tents, blankets, and medical supplies were
sent to save people. distributed within a month.
Money was provided by the government to pay
rent, and other bills.
Long-term response: Long-term response:
The Italian Prime Minister promised to build a new Around 40,000 people were relocated to new
town to replace L'Aquila. towns.
An investigation was set to look into why modern Government money was given to people whose
buildings weren't build to resist earthquakes. homes were destroyed.…read more

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Tropical forests are found near the equator in Central and South America, parts of Africa and Asia. They are hot and
humid and contain a huge variety of plants and animals - around half of the entire world's species. The trees are mostly
hardwood. The climate is called equatorial.
Desert is the driest and hottest of areas. The world's largest desert is the Sahara in North Africa. Areas of scrub land that
border the desert are called desert scrub.…read more

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Climate ­ Very little rainfall. Temperature varies during day
/ night.
Soil ­ Shallow, gravelly texture.
Vegetation structure ­ plant growth is sparse due to little
rainfall.
Hot, Dry Climates have Hot Deserts
Plant adaptations:
Roots are either very long to reach water or spread
out to catch as much water as possible when it
rains.
Cacti have swollen stems to store water. Thick,
waxy skin to reduce water loss.
Cacti and some bushes have small, spiky leaves to
reduce water loss.…read more

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Cleared for subsistence farms or commercial cattle ranches.
Vegetation is cut down and left to dry so it can be burnt ("slash and burn" technique)
Commercial logging
To make money.
Population pressure
Increase in population results to needing more space, so trees are cut down to make space.
Road building
Increase in settlement and industry so more roads need to be built.
Mineral extraction
Minerals are mined and sold.…read more

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Strategies to reduce the demand for hardwood
include heavily taxing imported hardwood or
banning its sale.
Education Some local people don't know the environmental
impacts of deforestation ­ they often try to make
money in the short-term to overcome poverty by
illegal logging.
Educating the people would decrease the effect of
the amount of people logging.
Also, you could educate them about alternative
ways to make money.
Ecotourism This doesn't harm the environment and benefits
the locals.…read more

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CASE
STUDY
­ HOT
D ESERTS
Kalahari Desert: Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia & South Africa. Area of 260,000 km2
It gets very little rainfall, approx. 200 mm per year.
Boteti River ­ only permanent river, however, temporary streams are created after rainfall.
Droughts
The Kalahari is densely populated, some native people live there (E.G. ­ San Bushmen and the Tswana)
Farming cattle, goats and sheep is a big industry in the Kalahari.
However, there are negative impacts:
Overgrazing causes soil erosion.…read more

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