Globalisation Revision Notes

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  • Created on: 02-04-13 08:58
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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Strands and characteristics of `development' in a
geographical context
Economic development ­ increase in a country's wealth/change in
employment structure
Demographic development - indicators such as an increase in life
expectancy, reduction in TFR, IMR
Social development ­ includes improvement in education and literacy,
healthcare, housing, sanitation etc. may also include greater personal
freedoms and opportunities for advancement
Political development - rights of individuals, greater democracy and
freedom ­ values and attitudes
Cultural development ­ encompasses empowerment and equality of
women, multicultural societies
Development is not just about getting richer!
... but of course the strength of an economy is very important.
Econ development/growth can generate capital that can then be
used to improve/enhance/advance other crucial components in
the development process
o Econ growth = Social improvement
With improvement to the general quality of life
(socio-economic) comes political development (stability,
democracy, freedom of speech) and finally... environmental
awareness and a consideration of conservation and
The terminology for describing or grouping countries at similar levels of
edeveleopkment signigicantly over the last 50 ­ 60 years:
Developed, less develop and least develop often udes. Hoever, the term
`econominc' was introduced as many countrues felt although they were
economicallt poor, they were actually rich.
First World ­ Western Europe, Japan, Aus, NZ
Second World ­ Communist controlled countries (former USSR)
Third World ­ or developing world ­ all the other countries in
Africa, Asia, S. America
Brandt line ­ North South divide

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Current world GDP average - $10,700
Benedict Anderson ­ imagined community
Development ­ means change and implies that change is for the
In geographical terms development encompasses economic progress
with subsequent advances in social service provision. It also integrates
political and environmental freedoms and appreciation.
Global differences...…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Development continuum
- The range of levels of economic development, from the poorest to
wealthiest countries. Over time individual countries will progress and
develop, although speed will vary; others may start to slow/stagnate or
even decline (Russia, Greece).…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Infant mortality rates
Levels of schooling - % per junior, secondary and tertiary edu
Literacy/illiteracy rates
Number of people per doctor
Calorie intake
% in each sector of the country's employment structure
(primary, secondary, tertiary)
Ownership of consumer durables washing machines, PCs, cars
E.g.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
8 countries have an HDI score of below 0.25
1.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
The term development refers to an improvement in a number of
different characteristics of populations. Development can suggest
economic, demographic, social, political and even cultural changes.
Economic Development: An increase in a country's level of wealth. This
could be accompanied by a decrease in the numbers employed in
agriculture and an increase in those involved in manufacturing (at first)
and services. There could also be greater access to, and use of, natural
resources, with more energy used per head of population.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Using such measurements an early classification of development divided
the world into three groups:
First world: also known as the developed world, including western
Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, new Zealand.
Second world: covered the state-controlled communist countries such as
the former USSR and the countries of Eastern Europe.
Third world: Also known as the developing world, containing all the
other countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
life expectancy,
high infant
mortality, low
levels of
education, etc.
This category
includes a
number of
RIC Recently Are countries Singapore Hong
Industrialize whose Kong
d Country economies have
not yet reached
first world
status but have
outpaced their
counter parts?
Centrally Centrally Communist North Belarus
Planned Planned countries still Korea
Economics exist, but only a
OPEC Oil A country that Algeria Saudi
Producing exports Arabia
Exporting petroleum to
country different
countries.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
6. Explain the term `Development Continuum'?
Also known as the `development gap' is the different in affluence
between the richer countries (those of the developed world) and the
poorer countries of the developing world. This gap has increased with
7. Find an image/cartoon that you feel illustrates the term
This image I think illustrates the
term development because to the
majority of people development is
about finance and economically how
countries are doing.…read more

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Globalisation 4/6/12 12:05 PM
Most would believe development in any form is a good/ positive
process. However, there is a belief amongst a very small minority that
`development' implies a dominant western world approach and ideology:
Belief in progress
Material growth and consumption
Solution to problems by the application of science and technology
The assumption of human dominance over nature.…read more


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