Energy security revision notes

Overview and notes for energy security.

Edexcel, A2, contested planet.

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Energy security
Overview
ENERGY SECURITY
Why is energy security a problem for the world?
Energy supply, demand and security
Investigate the different types of energy, classification and their impacts.
What is the distribution of energy resources?
What are the trends in global energy and demand?
Why is energy security rising?
The impacts of energy insecurity
What are the developments in energy infrastructure?
What are the tensions, costs and conflicts of energy insecurity?
What are the costs and benefits of exploiting an area for the resources?
Why have TNCs economical and political power increased?
Energy security and the future
What is the range of supply and demand and economic projections to develop uncertainty?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of energy options?
What is the effect of the 'business as usual' framework' on energy security?
What is the sustainability of radical policies and what are the player's attitudes?
Energy supply, demand and security
Investigate the different types of energy, classification and their impacts.
ENERGY-what the world needs to `fuel' everything and is derived from a diversity of sources and today most come from fossil fuels
and much is consumed in the form of electricity.
ENERGY MIX-this includes the different sources of energy that a country uses in meeting its energy needs.
What are the different types of energy sources?
Examiner's tip: use the threefold classification of energy sources rather than the twofold distinction between renewable and
non-renewable sources.
Renewable
RENEWABLE-they are flows of nature which are continuous and can be constantly renewed.
Wind
+ Efficient because they are often located in areas of high volume of wind (often coastal areas).
+ Minimal pollution; there is only visual and noise pollution.
+ No lung conditions aggravated by other forms of energy.

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No nuclear waste.
Threat to animals
Hydropower
Damage rivers.
Pollute waters, flood forests and give off greenhouse gases.
¼ of human methane produced.
Large amount of areas flooded, large areas of vegetation drowned by lake decays which produce methane and CO2.
Tidal power
Barrages built to harness tidal power.
Destroys wildlife habitats both upstream and downstream.
Solar
Solar could supply energy to 4 billion people in 2030.
Large tracts and long transmission lines in the desert.
Large areas need to be covered with photovoltaic cells.…read more

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Nuclear
No CO2 is released.
No safety when storing resources.
Chernobyl/Sendai, Japan nuclear disasters.
Difficulty in processing.
Biofuels
Biomass
Biomass and biofuels emit carbon dioxide when combusted, however, they reabsorb the carbon dioxide when
they are regrown making them `carbon neutral'.
Examiner's tip: you need to be able to compare the environmental impacts of all of the energy sources.
What is the access to energy?
Typical mistake: when writing about demand, many candidates don't
understand the difference between total energy consumption and
electricity consumption.…read more

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China has become a low-cost producer of solar photovoltaic cells, which generate electricity from sunlight. As more and more PV
cells are produced, the price will fall and this could mean potential access for poorer countries will increase.
What is the distribution of energy resources?
What are the trends in global energy and demand?
Global demand for energy has risen dramatically.
The BRIC countries, as well as other large developing nations (e.g.…read more

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Case study: California, USA
In June 2000 and May 2001, California suffered energy crisis- price instability and major blackouts.
Lowest per capita energy consumption is due to the mild weather.
It has 16% of USA's oil reserves but only 3% of the gas reserves.
It produces 5% of the USA's total electricity.
California is energy insecure because they rely on imports and high consumption rates.
Why did California have blackouts?
1.…read more

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What are energy pathways?
Energy must flow along international pathways from producer to consumer.
This either through, bulk carriers, LNG tankers or oil tankers. Electricity can also be imported and exported.
Pathways can be disrupted, increasing energy insecurity pipelines:
The Eastern Siberian Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
The East Siberian Pacific Ocean oil pipeline will be 2600 miles long when completed.
It is the most expensive and longest pipeline.…read more

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What are the risks of the distribution of energy?
What are the tensions, costs and conflicts of energy insecurity?
The Arctic
Examiner's tips: know the issues surrounding the exploitation of one technically difficult area and one unconventional source
(e.g. tar sands).
The region contains 30% of the world's undiscovered natural gas and 15% of its oil as well as the shipping lanes.…read more

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The submission will further assert that Canada owns the Lombroso's Ridge. Currently, each of the countries
have 200 nautical miles as territory and Canada wishes to extend this by about half a million square miles.
Greenpeace believes any country is rushing for oil at a time of global warming is being deeply responsible. Aside from that, they
may ruin the pristine environment of the Arctic.
Oil in Iraq
There is a threat to the security of energy.…read more

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China's energy future
China's companies have been getting support and guidance.
China is attempting to protect its oil imports in the Middle East:
I. Closer ties with Burma
II. Expanding naval sources in Bangladesh.
III. Investing in other sources.
What are the costs and benefits of exploiting an area for the resources?
Examiner's tip: remember the exploration for and exploitation of new sources of oil and gas have only become possible and
economically feasible because of the technological advances and rising energy prices.…read more

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Anadarko- they have installed a 100 million test well 60km off the coast of Otago Peninsula, at the bottom of the
Canterbury Basin and this was in order to test the effectiveness and efficiency of oil exploitation. This was further developed by
producing further wells by the company.
3. Statoil-they have been permitted a license for oil exploration.
4. Heavy Woodside Petroleum-they have been permitted a license for oil exploration.…read more

Comments

Dina

Bethany,

These are amazing!!! So structured and detailed.... just what ive been looking for!

You're a star!! Thank you so much!! :) **

Bethany Cunningham

Thank you so much Dina. 

The feedback is greatly appreciated. 

Good luck in your exam!

Ben Gallop

nice

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